Skip to main content

Full text of "Adams's Pocket descriptive guide to the environs of the metropolis : embracing Berkshire, Hertfordshire, Middlesex, Surrey, Kent, and Essex ..."

See other formats


Ex Libris 
K. OGDEN 




Digitized by the Internet Arclnive 

in 2007 witln funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 



littp://www.archive.org/details/adamsspocl<etdescOOblaniala 



ADAMS'S 

POCKET DESCRIPTIVE GUIDE 

TO THE 

ENVIRONS OF THE METROPOLIS. 



Milk 



■f '^ ^^ 



ADAJIS'S 

TO THE 

ENVIRONS 

OF THE 



3/?^ METROPOLIS 




EMBBACIXG 

BEEKSHTRE, HERTFOKDSHIEE, 

MIDDLESEX, SURREY, KENT, 

AND ESSEX, 

IN A CIHCXIT OF 

Thirty Miles round iKindon. 



BY E. L. BLANCHAKD. 



LONDON: 
I W.J.ADAMS, 59,rLEET-STEEET, 

AXD ALL BOOK8EIXEB8. 



INTEODUCTION. 

The object of this pocket companion to the excursionist is 
sufficiently indicated by the title, the desire having been 
throughout to supply a compact and yet compendious guide 
to the chief places of interest and attraction to be found within 
a circuit of about thirty miles around the metropolis. Those 
who are limited in time or purse need not tarry in town 
on account of distance being necessarily the only condition 
that " lends enchantment to the view." If they can only steal 
a few hours from the exigencies of business, they can for the 
most moderate outlay, that even a little extra dinner indulgence 
would exceed, be transported by the spirit of steam to some of 
the rural retreats on the outskirts of our busy Babylon, that 
will bring them within the sight of scenery as beautiful, and 
places as fraught with rich historical associations, as though 
they had been wafted beyond the range of a day's journey. 
To serve as a gossiping companion by the way, pointing out 
tlie remarkable features of an old building, or the purpose for 
which a modern one has been erected, is the principal aim of 
our ambition, and if by throwing into our description a little 
of that discursive matter, which gives a zest to even the shortest 
trip, an additional pleasure is imparted, the small volume that 
we haw furnished with this design will not be felt as an 



2000208 



4 INTEODCCTION. 

unwelcome incumbrance to the coat-pocket. We have endea- 
voured to eschew such unnecessary antiquarian discussions as 
would prove only superfluous to the cursory visitor, who can 
find them elaborately detailed in larger works, whenever he 
shall desire to look for them — and, instead, an attempt has 
been made to supply precisely that information which will 
prove of the greatest interest, when the place described is 
brought under personal notice. 

Few of a tolerably imaginative temperament have coolly 
gazed through the medium of a bookseller's shop-window 
upon some landscape engraving, picturing the beauties of a 
picturesque spot, without irresistibly having their thoughts 
directed to the same locality, and their inclination bent on the 
achievement of an excursion thither. A chance sketch of 
English scenery, or a county map, casually encountered, has a 
wonderful tendency to disturb the steady train of our reflections, 
sending susceptible folks off at once in quest of railway stations, 
and considerably multiplying the number of pleasure-trips 
taken during the sunny days of summer and autumn. "We 
would fain give to those thus influenced a few hints about the 
philosophy of rambling, the best mode of getting enjoyment 
out of it, and the advantages to be derived from these occa- 
sional excursions. A walking-stick, in the first place, is a very 
serviceable companion, and — in default of a more agreeable 
one — a little volume of descriptive poetry well chosen, for 
perusal during the hours of rest and re&eshment, gives a 



DfTKODUCTlON. 6 

wholesome relish to our appreciation of Nature. We catch the 

true spirit of many a British bard under these circumstances. 

In fact, some of the greatest delights of a summer ramble are 

derived from the association of objects around us with the 

brilliant thoughts and glowing imagery with which they have 

been invested by the poets. It should never be said of our 

wayside wanderer, in the words of one of our most reflective 

minstrels — 

" The primrose by the river's trim, 
A yellow primrose was to him, 
And it was nothing move." 

But we would have him acquire the habit — which a taste for 
literature easily imparts — of rendering everything he sees 
suggestive of something that has been said or thought con- 
cerning it, and he will by this process find its charms wonder- 
fully multiplied. It is in this ready and heartfelt consciousness 
of the links that bind animate and inanimate nature together 
that the charms of a rural excursion really consist. We would 
thus have our rambler somewhat of a botanist — not a mere 
expounder of hard names with Walker-only- knows-how-many 
syllables — ^but a kind of roadside florist, who can recognise 
flowering plants by their native English appellations, and 
would rather leave the violet blooming on its shady bank than 
ruthlessly dissect it to explore the arrangement of pistils and 
corolla. A smattering of entomology also, is not by any means 
to be despised. Your true lover of the country would not even 
crush a spider in his lair, nor crunch under his ruthless heel 



6 IXTEODCCTIOJf. 

the humblest beetle that ever twirled its antennae in the sun- 
shine. "We can then follow the golden-belted bee to his own 
honeyed home, and lulled by the drowsy humming of his 
wings, plunge into a dreamy reverie about the internal philo- 
sophy of his hive, and start wild comparisons with social 
communities. We can then enter into the fullest sympathy 
with butterflies, and share the exuberance of their own 
apparently intense enjoyment ; or, bending over a stagnant 
pool, we can dabble delightedly in duck-weed, and watch with 
carious eye the chase of a fugitive aquatic insect by some 
gawky pirate of the pond, who, after skating along in ptirsuit 
of his victim with marvellous celerity of motion, sits gently 
down in the mud at the bottom and amuses himself by sending 
up, juggler-fashion, a series of bright bubbling beads to break 
on the surface as a kind of after-dinner relaxation. There is 
indeed no limit to the odd fancies which crowd in upon us 
during these excursive perambulations, enlisting our interest 
in the veriest trifles, to confess which, at other times, would be 
a species of avowed insanity. Yet these apparently insignifi- 
cant items are the sand grains that form the mountain — the 
component particles of that great aggregate of happiness 
which may be obtained in — and which we trust all our readers 
may derive from — a summer day's ramble. 
Every year when 

" Summer retnms and nature b green. 
And the cuckoo is heard, and the siAllow is seen," 



IKTEODUCTIOK. 7 

man — that is a susceptible being capable of clairvoyance under 
solar mesmerism — experiences in the soles of his feet an 
invincible desire to export himself somewhere. He is seized 
with an alarming horror of his domicile, and is haunted in his 
dreams by spectral steamers, phantom footpaths, and visionary 
vehicles. He has a thirst for change — this must be quenched: 
a longing for locomotion — this must be gratified. Some fine 
morning a friend calls at his residence — he has vanished, 
exhaled, evaporated. A month passes by, and he is again 
seen, with a hoe darkened by the sun, and a purse lightened 
by the journey. But the intervening time has been to him 
fraught with pleasant memories, and he has inflated his lungs 
with a stock of unpolluted oxygen that will enable him to 
breathe upon credit for the next twelvemonth. To all who 
can emancipate themselves from town thraldom, and who have 
the opportunity of getting away, even into the suburbs, we 
would most emphatically urge them to go and do likewise. 
Let them seize every chance of thus turning a fine day to the best 
advantage. The moil and turmoil of the human hive renders 
an escape to the region of trees and flowers a privilege not to 
be lightly despised, and the eye is not less clear, nor the hand 
less dexterous, for the slight remission of their employment. 
And then going, like 

" One who long in populous cities pent. 
Where houses thick, and sewers annoy the air, 
Forth issuing on a summer's morn to breathe. 



8 INTBODUCnO^T. 

Among the pleasant villages and fkrma 
Adjoined, from each thing met conceives delight. 
The smell of grain, or tedded gross, or kine. 
Or dairy, rural sights, and mral sounds——" 

he shall return with renewed energy to his avocation, and find 

that these simple pleasures are the best and most enduring. 

Ha>'ing, therefore, now fully prepared the reader for the 

enjoyment of one of those excursive trips which we are about 

to indicate and describe, we may confidently affirm that if 

anybody takes an excursion into his head without putting this 

volume into his pocket he deserve to be : no I we vrill 

not be too severe — as the man says in the play, the crime 

carries its own ponishment along with it. 



ADAMS'S 

ENVIRONS OF THE METROPOLIS. 



EXCURSION L 

HAMPSTEAD— THE HEATH— JACK STRAWS CASTLE— THE 
SPANIARD'S — CAEN WOOD — FINCHLEY — HIGHGATE— HIGH- 
GATE HILL-ARUNDEL HOUSE— HIGHGATE ARCHWAY— THE 
HIGHGATE OATH— WHITTINGTON AND HIS ALMSHOUSES— 
THE NORTH LONDON CEilETERY— ISLINGTON— CANONBURY 
HOUSE, &c. &c. 




MIDDLESEX. 

THE first excursion 
which we propose to 
describe is one long 
familiar to the metro- 
politan resident by 
name, but replete with 
historical and local 
associations, that are 



10 HAMPSTBAD. 

too little known, it will form an appropriate commencement 
to our depictions of the scenery and antiquities that may be 
encountered even in the shortest ramble about the environs. 
An omnibus — of which there are plenty to be met with, every 
hour of the day, from the City and Tottenham Court-road — 
will furnish a conveyance to Hampstead, at once convenient 
and economical, and relieve the pedestrian from the least 
interesting and most fatiguing portion of his journey. Passing 
through Camden Town — which, notwithstanding its present 
extent, is one of the most recently erected suburbs, having been 
first built upon in 1791, on the manor falling into the posses- 
sion of the Marquis of Camden — we have the line of the North- 
Western Railway branching oflf to our left, and Chalk Farm, 
once so noted in the annals of duelling, a little beyond. At 
Haverstock Hill, where the ascent is palpable enough to make 
a slower pace necessary and a retrospective glance at the 
forest of chimneys beneath as obtainable, we have on the left 
of the road a cottage, now split into two separate dwellings, 
formerly the residence of Sir Bichard Steele, the associate of 
Addison, and the busy contributor to the " Tatler." The road, 
which speedily assumes a very rural aspect, though studded 
with elegant villas in every direction, next leads past Down- 
shire Hill, a pretty vista giving a distant glimpse of Highgate 
Church and the houses round Kentish Town, anciently bearing 
the name of Cantislares, or Cantlers. It now belongs chiefly to 
the possessions of St. Paul's Cathedral, as ecclesiastical pro- 
perty. Soon after we enter the main street of Hampstead, and 
here, alighting from our vehicle, we may proceed to reconnoitre 
this ancient and admired resort of the London rambler. 

The Romans — that wonderful people, who were the first to 
find out those attractive situations which modem judgment 
has since sanctioned and improved — were evidently located 
here for some time, and many Roman antiquities have been 
discovered at various periods, particularly near the "Wells, in 
1774. Ethelred made this district a present to Westminster 
Abbey in 986 ; but as it then only contained five cottages, the 



HAMPSTEAD. 11 

benefaction was of less consideration than it would be now, 
when it includes nearly five thousand. In the reign of Henry 
the Eighth it had acquired a wonderful reputation among 
laundresses, and the nobility were wont to send their hnen 
hither to be bleached, in the belief that peculiarly cleansing 
properties were here attached to the two elements of air and 
water. For a short time the county members were elected on 
the heath, but the privilege was lost in 1701, and from that 
time the chief interest is connected with the eminent literary 
characters, who made Hampstead a place of frequent resort 
and residence. At a tavern called " The Upper Flask" — the 
sign is still perpetuated — the celebrated " Kit-cat Club" was 
originally held, under the management of its eccentric sponsor, 
Christopher Cat, and here Addison, Steele, Richardson (the 
novelist) Pope, Gay, Arbuthnot, and afterwards Akenside and 
Dr. Johnson, with a host of other celebrities, used frequently 
to assemble. The Church of St. John's was built in 1747; but 
the increasing population rendering its want of accommodation 
severely felt, it has been recently enlarged to nearly double its 
former extent, at a cost of £3,000. There is a chapel in "Well- 
walk, where formerly persons were married without fees on 
condition of ordering their wedding dinner at the Wells, which 
was of course charged for in proportion. These wells enjoyed 
much celebrity in the last century, as containing a chalybeate 
spring suitable for many complaints; but they have become 
latterly quite deserted and forgotten. Passing on to the Heath, 
throned upon an elevation of nearly 400 feet above the sea 
level, there is a magnificent prospect spread forth on every 
side. The mighty maze of London, with its myriad house- 
tops, lies mapped out in the hollow towards the south, whilst 
rising amidst the smoky vapour, that hangs over the city like 
a cloud, may be recognised the massive dome of St. Paul's, 
the towers of Westminster Abbey, and the New Houses of 
Parliament, the thread-like elevation of the Monument, and 
most of the more elevated pubhc edifices. Beyond may be 
traced the blue outline of the Surrey hiUs, even to Banstead 



12 HAMPSTEAD. 

Downs. On the other side the view is even more varied and 
extensive. With the condition of a clear atmosphere, the eye 
can embrace from this eminence Windsor, Harrow-on-the-Hill, 
Ashley Hills (thirty miles distant), Finchley, Hanslop steeple, 
in Northamptonshire, within eight miles of Northampton ; and 
the range of the Langdon Hills in Essex, full thirty miles east; 
besides numerous places within the circumference, of inferior 
note. Around, in the immediate neighbourhood, are Rosslyn 
House, and Bellsize, an old Manor Hall; Parliament Hill, 
where there is an ancient tumulus; the Vale of Health, sheltered 
between the hills; North-End, close to the Heath; West-End, 
half-a-mile to the south west; Fortune Green, half-a-mile west; 
and Child's Hill, one mile to the north-west. To the south of 
the hills are the Hampstead Ponds, which formed the source 
of the Fleet — that famous river, which Pope immortalized as — 

" The king of dykes, than whom no sluice of mud 
With deeper sable biota the silver flood." 

For many centuries, however, the water was as pure as its 
origin betokened. Passing from Hampstead, it went by Kentish 
Town, Camden Town, and the old chtirch of St. Pancras, 
towards Battle Bridge, past Bagnigge Wells and the House of 
Correction, towards the valley at the back of Mount Pleasant, 
and thence to the bottom of Holbom. Here it received the 
waters of the Old Bourne, which afterwards bequeathed its 
name to the thoroughfare, rising near Middle Row, and the 
sewer of Holbom Hill is the same channel to this day. In 
1765 the Fleet was finally covered over and buUt upon; but 
the sparkling source that gave it birth is still unchanged by 
time. The Serpentine is also fed by the springs alwut this spot, 
which makes the fact more remarkable, that Hampstead itself 
is lamentably deficient in the supply of water which it distri- 
butes so liberally to the northern suburbs. We believe, how- 
ever, that arrangements are now in progress for removing 
what has always been such a marvellous defect to the parish, 
and such a serious inconvenience to the inhabitants. 



HAMPSTEAD. 13 

The tavern known as "Jack Straw's Castle" was .so 
designated from a tradition — generally considered erroneous 
— that this was one of the retreats of the insurgents during the 
rebellion of Wat Tyler. The house is commodious, and has 
some spacious grounds attached, with a Post-office adjacent. 
A brisk walk across the Heath westward will soon bring the 
pedestrian to " The SpaniarcTs" an excellent hostel, situated 
in a rather romantic position among the woods, and com- 
manding some delightful views. It was formerly the site of a 
gateway leading into an extensive park, the property of the 
Bishops of London, and here, in a less pleasant way than by 
the charges of the present Boniface, toll was exacted from 
every traveller who passed. In this park, known as HaiFring- 
hay, was once a magnificent palace, the property also of these 
great church dignitaries, and how pleasantly chosen may be 
inferred from a description given of the suburbs by Fitzstephen, 
in 1180, which reads somewhat oddly in the present day. The 
old chronicler says — we have of course modernised the spelling 
— " There are cornfields, pastures, and delightful meadows, 
intermixed with pleasant streams, on which stand many a mill 
whose clack is so grateful to the ear ; beyond them a forest 
extends itself, beautified by woods and groves, and full of the 
layers and coverts of beasts and game, stags, bucks, boars, and 
wild bulls." That this bishop's palace was also a castle we 
learn from an account published of it in 1593, which even then 
alludes to its antiquity as a ruin. The following is the passage : 
— " The hill is at this time trenched with two deep ditches, 
now oldc and overgrowne with bushes, the rubble thereof, as 
brick, tile, and cornish slate, are in heaps yet to be seen, which 
ruins are of great antiquity, as may appear by the oaks at this 
day standing, above a hundred years growth, at the very 
foundation of the building." That the facility afforded for 
hunting was the chief reason that induced the prelates here to 
fix their residence cannot be doubted, when it is remembered 
that at a period not more remote than the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth these wooded andulations abounded with pheasants, 



14 HAMP8TEAD, 

partridges, and herons, which latter bird being found in such 
abundance proves that the region of villas by which London 
is now begirt, " like some swarth Indian with his belt of beads," 
was tlien scarcely better than an undrained track of marsh 
land. A century before, the hilly range of Highgate and 
Hampstead, with the gentler declivity of Hornsey and the 
valley of Tottenham to the east, were famous for wild boars, 
and the diversion of hunting them often drew the citizens to 
resorts now frequented for a much less romantic purpose, so 
that in earlier times there could have been no dearth of sport 
for these mitred huntsmen. The form of the moat, seventy 
yards square, is still visible, and is indicated by a gushing 
spring, which now serves as a watering-place for cattle, where 
the aged bushes on its banks may yet be seen drooping into 
the refreshing stream. In the wood adjacent to this castle a 
hostile meeting took place between the Duke of Gloucester 
and the Earl of Warwick in 1386, and it was here that the 
former opposed the king with a force of forty thousand men. 
Henry VIII. threatened those who should hunt or hawk 
within these precincts "imprisonment of their bodies, and 
further punishment at his majesty's will and pleasure," so that, 
whilst we indulge in a little needful rest and refreshment at 
the " Spaniard's", there is no lack of matter for reflection, 
when we contemplate the changes of times past and present 

Before leaving the inn which bears this uncommon appella- 
tion, we may mention that it owes its name to the circumstance 
of a Spaniard being its first landlord, since which time it has 
been considerably improved, and the gardens laid out with 
taste and liberality. Close by was, about a century since, a 
curious cottage, called " New Georgia," which bore on it an 
inscription penned after the following quaint fashion : — " I, 
Robert Caxton, began this place in a wild wood, stubbed np 
the wood, digged all the ponds, cut all the walks, made all the 
gardens, built all the rooms with my own hands, nobody drove 
a nail here, laid a brick or tile here, but myself, and thank God 
for giving me such strength, being sixty-four years of age 



CAEN WOOD. 15 

■w-hen I began it." The owner showed his visitors several 
small rooms with embellishments of his own execution, and 
wherein some such odd diversions were resorted to as the 
gentleman being put into the pillory, and the ladies obliged to 
kiss him under penalties not decorous to enumerate. The 
eccentricity of this heai;^y old gentleman was further developed 
in 1760, by causing his grounds, which were most romantically 
disposed, to be interspersed with representations of various 
reptiles, that by means of hidden machinery suddenly made an 
attack upon the unsuspecting lounger. There was a chair so 
constructed also, with a perversion of ingenuity, that directly 
the tired stranger became seated in it would fling around him 
the wooden semblance of snakes, spiders, and the most loath- 
some reptiles, all we are to presume made likewise out of jVIt. 
Caxton's " own head." 

Caen Wood, the residence of the Earl of Mansfield, is the 
next conspicuous object that arrests our attention. Once the 
retreat of Venner, the fanatic, and his followers, it was at an 
early date inhabited by the Duke of Argyle. The mansion is 
a noble structure, though without much pretension to archi- 
tectural magnificence, and the spacious park is composed of 
graceful undulations, green lawns, sparkling sheets of water, 
and strips of umbrageous woodland, with here an opening 
whence a picturesque view may be obtained, and there a 
grove of impenetrable thickness. Though now the very image 
of peaceful seclusion, it was in 1780 the scene of one of those 
riotous outbreaks which are, happily, of such rare occurrence 
in England, though apparently epidemic abroad. The " No 
Popery" cry, fomented by Lord George Gordon, incited a 
desperate gang to bum down the elegant mansion of Lord 
Mansfield in Bloomsbury Square, which consumed a most 
valuable collection of pictures and manuscripts ; and Lord 
and Lady Mansfield were with diflBculty preserved from their 
violence, by making their escape through a back door a few 
minutes before these miscreants broke in and took possession 
of the house. The military was sent for, but arrived too late; 



16 nscHLEr. 

they were obliged, however, to fire on the mob in their own 
defence, and six men and a woman were killed and several 
wonnded. Not contented with the havoc and destruction they 
had already caused, the infuriate mob went in two divisions 
through Highgate and Hampstead, both meeting at the 
" Spaniard's," then kept by one Giles Thomas. With singular 
presence of mind he persuaded his unruly visitors to refresh 
themselves amply, throwing not only his house and cellarage 
open to them free of charge, but causing barrels of strong ale 
to be rolled from the cellars of Caen Wood house to the road- 
side. During the time thus so adroitly gained messengers 
were despatched for the soldiery, who arrived just in time to 
save the noble structure, which the multitude intended to 
destroy. The whole of these exciting incidents have been 
admirably introduced by Dickens into his story of " Bamaby 
Rudge," and tell with thrilling effect upon the reader. 

Should time permit, it is worth while for the pedestrian to 
stroll hence through East End on to Finchky, which is about 
three miles further, and pay a visit to the old church, that 
claims an antiquity coeval with the fifteenth century. There 
are some fine old tombs and brasses that will well repay 
inspection. Some ancient almshouses, supported by an endow- 
ment of £300 a year, given in 1491, are interesting as a record 
of the benevolence of our forefathers. Finchley Common, 
memorable for the exploits of the Dick Turpins and Claude 
Du Val's of former days, is now surrounded by the neat villas 
of our London merchants, but the tree is still standing that 
formed the rendezvous of the highwaymen; and the Black- 
smith's forge is on the same site, where the old farrier shod the 
horse of one of these minions of the moon the WTong way, in 
order to enable him to evade pursuit, by leaving a reversed 
track behind. This locality will also remind one of Hogarth's 
" March toFittchley"viheTein he has so humourously delineated 
the progress of the Foot Guards to their place of rendezvous on 
Finchley Common, whence they were to proceed to Scotland 
against the rebels in 1745. The return to town can be made 



HIGHGATE. 17 

either by way of Muswell Hill, Hornsey Lane, and Islington, 
or through Highgate and Kentish Town. The latter, as being 
the nearest as well as most interesting route, is the one we 
have preferred to indicate. 

The salubrity of Highoate is attested not only by the old 
records, which show during the prevalence of the Great 
Plague of London that not one death from that fearful disease 
occurred in this locality, but also by the number of hospitals 
and asylums that have been here erected, and the numerous 
families who have chosen a residence in this elevated region, 
for the sake of its pure and bracing atmosphere. One of the 
most curious circumstances connected with its history is 
attached to the name of Sir William "Wallace. When that 
patriotic hero was beheaded on Tower Hill, in 1305, his 
remains were conveyed to the lodge of Gilbert Earl of Glou- 
cester, the Bishop's castle before alluded to, and here also 
Robeit Bruce, disguised as a Carmelite, remained concealed 
until treachery betrayed his retreat to the king. Many stirring 
scenes were here enacted during the " troublous times" of 
Henry IV.; and it is, besides, the locality of the famous 
necromantic conspiracy, plotted by the Duchess of Gloucester, 
Margaret Jourdain, and their conferates, against Henry the 
Sixth. On Highgate Hill was Baron Thorpe beheaded by the 
insurgents in 1461; and in Arundel House was imprisoned 
the unfortunate Lady Arabella Stuart, and hence she escaped 
in male attire. The adventures of this unhappy lady, who by 
her affinity to James I. and Elizabeth, was placed too near 
the throne for her own peaceful desires, form one of the most 
singular episodes in history. In the same house the great Lord 
Bacon breathed his last, leaving only the immortality of a 
name. Cromwell House, a curious structure close by, was 
built by the Protector for Ireton, his son-in-law ; the armorial 
bearings of the family are still to be seen on the ceiling of the 
drawing-room. In Lauderdale House once dwelt Mistress 
Nell G Wynne, mother of the first Duke of St. Albans; and 
among the many other celebrated personages who have cither 
c 



18 HIGHGATE. 

spent the greater part of their lives or ended their days hercj 
may be enumerated Sir Eichard Baker, author of the " Chro- 
nicles," Andrew Marvel, the Countess of Huntingdon, Dr. 
Sacheverell, Moreland, Coleridge, and Charles Lamb. The 
high gate which gave its name to the parish was an arch with 
rooms over it, and was removed in 1769, its want of height 
obstructing the passage of laden waggons. The north road 
now passes through the hill by means of a deep cutting and 
under an archway. The reason for establishing the old gate 
is thus fully communicated by Norden, one of the old local 
topographers: — "The Auncient Highwaie to High Bamet 
from Portepole, now Gray's Inn Lane, was through a lane on 
the east of Pancras Church called Longwich Lane ; from thence 
leaving Highgate to the west, it passed through Tallingdone 
Lane, and so to Crouch End, and thence through a park 
called Hornsey Great Park, to Muswell Hill, Colney Hatch, 
Fryeme Bamet, and so to Whetstone. This Auncient High- 
waie was refused of wayfarers and carriers by reason of 
the deepness and dirtie passage in the winter season. It 
was agreed between the Bishop of London and the countrie 
that a new way should be laide forthe through the said 
Bishop's possessions, beginning at Highgate Hill, to lead 
directly to Whetstone, for which new waie travellers yield a 
certain toll imto the Bishop of London, which is farmed at 
£40 per annum, and for that purpose was the gate erected in 
1387 upon the hill, that through the same all travellers should 
passe, and be the more aptly staide for the said toll." At the 
Gate House Inn was formerly administered the celebrated 
Highgate oath on the horns, which strange custom is said to 
have originated from the fact of the tavern being frequented by 
graziers, who, to exclude strangers, brought an ox to the door, 
aad allowed none to enter who would not kiss the homs. Some 
doggrel rhymes of the pariod thus allude to the circumstance : — 

" It's a custom at Highgate, that all who go through 
Must be sworn on the homs, sir ; and so, sir, must you ; 
Bring the homs, shut the door ; lyw, sir, off with your hat. 
And when you again come, pray don't forget that." 



HIGHGATE. 19 

Not longer back than sixty years, when eighty stages stopped 
daily at the Red Lion Inn — now where ai'e they ? — three 
out of every five passengers were regularly sworn. The 
landlord, introducing a pair of horns on a long pole, bade 
every guest be uncovered, and then gave a rigmarole affir- 
mation of what every one might and might not do with 
impunity, such as not to eat brown bread when they could 
get white, except they liked it better, and so forth, with 
other whimsical injunctions, in the same strain. These mum- 
meries of a past age, when boisterous memment was mis- 
taken for happiness, are now quite extinct. The handsome 
gothic church of St. Jlichael's was completed in 1832, and 
forms a landmark seen for miles round ; the interior is exceed- 
ingly neat and commodious. The grammar school, which was 
originally an hermitage, was founded by Sir Roger Cholmely 
in 1565, who left some estates for its support. The school at 
first educated only forty boys ; but by judicious management, 
and the receipt of a small extra sum from the scholars, tlie 
benefits have been extended to nearly double the number, and 
the income has increased from £10 to nearly £900 annually. 
The original Whittington's Stone has been long since removed, 
but some handsome almshouses mark the spot where he heard 
the peal of Bow Bells ringing the mystic injunction in his ear 
of "Turn again Whittington, thrice Lord Mayor of London." 
He was Lord Mayor during the three reigns of Richard II., 
Henry IV., and Henry V., having been at first sheriff in 1393. 
Before leaving Highgate no one should omit a visit to the 
Highgate or North London Cemetery, consecrated by the 
Bishop of London in May, 1839. The grounds, comprising an 
area of about twenty acres, form a portion of that side of 
Highgate Hill which faces the metropolis. They are entered 
from a lane on the west by a little gothic building. To the 
left is the chapel, and broad gravel paths wind in each 
direction, through flowery partcn-es, clumps of evergreens, 
and picturesque combinations of trees. An Egyptian archway 
forms the entrance to the catacombs, where a fine cypress-tree, 
C2 



20 ISLINGTON. 

in the central compartment, flings a congenial shadow over 
the solid masonry beneath. The terrace which runs at the foot 
of the church commands an extensive view over London and 
the adjacent country. 

Again resorting to omnibus conveyance, the excursionist 
can either go through Holloway and Islington, or to Camden 
Town, as his desires may tend ; but he must not forget, if he 
returns through Islington, that the old tavern called "The 
Queen Elizabeth's Head" has some noticeable antique furniture 
and apartments, with the real Whittington Stone, it is said, 
for its threshold — ^that Canonbury has an old Manor House, 
formerly belonging to the Priory of St. Bartholomew at Smith- 
field — and that at the old tavern of " The Red Lion," in St. 
John Street Road, the notorious Thomas Paine wrote some of 
the works that gave rise to such endlesss law proceedings with 
Carlile and others. 

A day may well be devoted to this excursion, but, omitting 
Finchley, the whole can be comfortably explored with the aid 
of omnibii in the course of a summer's afternoon. 



EXCURSION n. 

HARROW— THE LONDON AND BIESHNGHAM RAILWAY— 
KEXSAL GREEN— WILLESDEN—HARROW-ON-THE-HILL—HAR- 
KOW CHURCH— THE SCHOOL— BYRON'S FAVORITE SPOT— 
GREENFORD—HANWELL— JONAS HANWAY— EALING— ACTON 
BERRYMEAD PRIORY— NOTTING HILL AND BAYSWATER. 

Fbom Euston Square to Harrow, by the London and Bir- 
mingham Railway, is a rapid railroad transit of nine and a 
half miles; and, as few would prefer to this speedy travelling 
the slower progress along the Harrow road, by Paddington 
and Westboume Green, we shall assume that this is the route 
chosen. Possessed, therefore, of a ticket to the Harrow station, 
we can leisurely glance at the intervening objects we encounter 
on our way, as we effectually shorten, by the aid of steam, the 
time occupied in our journey. Passing through the Primrose 
Hill Tunnel, which is 1,120 yards in length, and the excavation 
of which occupied a period of three years, we are next carried 
under the Edgeware Road, and beneath a number of bridges, 
chiefly used for connecting private property severed by the 
line. Three miles from the Primrose-Hill Tunnel we come to 
the Kensal Green Tunnel, 960 feet in length, the celebrated 
cemetery being on the other side, and forming of itself a place 
worthy of pilgrimage, from the number of eminent individuals 
who are entombed within its limits ; branches of royalty itself, 
in the persons of the Duke of Sussex and the Princess Sophia, 
having, in 1843 and 1848, been added to the other illustrious 
names. At a small cottage adjacent, demolished in 1837, 
Goldsmith wrote the " Deserted Village" and the " Vicar of 
Wakefield." Some modem villas have lately been built 
npon the site. In the Abbey Field, at Kilbum, stood a 
Priory, once famous for a medicinal spring. At Willesden 



22 HARROW. 

is a plain Saxon church, enjoying the traditionary reputation 
of being the burial place of the novel-renowned Jack 
Sheppai'd; and the cage, where he was once in " durance 
vile," is still to be seen. A richly pastoral country is next 
traversed, and crossing over the Brent by a viaduct, and 
winding round the hill, where the spire of the village church 
is seen rising above the trees, we alight at our destination. 

The Harrow Station is rather more than a mile from Har- 
row, lying in the valley below. Crossing the green meadows 
that form our pathway until we reach the foot of the hill, 
where the slope becomes much steeper, the view from the 
summit will be found to deserve all the encomiums that have 
been so lavishly bestowed upon it. The hill, rising almost 
isolated from an extensive plain, with the church and school 
on one side, and the old churchyard sloping on the other, 
forms in itself a combination of objects inexpressibly attractive 
and picturesque; but when the eye ranges over the vast 
expanse, and the landscape is lit up by the gorgeous sunset of 
a summer's eve, the prospect becomes positively fascinating. 
On the north it is limited by the woody country round Edge- 
ware and Whitchurch, but from the west there is included 
within the scope of vision the most fertile portions of Buckings 
hamshire and Berkshire, with more to the south the towers of 
Windsor Castle; thence we catch a glimpse of Knockholt 
Beeches, on the very verge of Sussex, and the sweeping 
undulation of the Sun-ey Hills, whilst, about ten miles away, 
half shrouded in its canopy of smoke, looms the great metro- 
polis, vnth. the rotundity of St. Paul's dome gleaming in the 
sunlight like a ball of golden fire. 

The church is less remarkable in its exterior than a distant 
view would induce us to suppose. It was founded by Arch- 
bishop Lanfranc, who held the manor of Harrow in the warlike 
days of William the Conqueror. A few fragments of the Nor- 
man architect are to be descried in the pillars of the western 
porch, but time and the race of churchwardens — scarcely less 
ioimical to antiquity — have nearly obliterated eveiy vestige 



HABKOW. 23 

of the old edifice of eight centuries back. The retort of 
Charles 11., who called this the only manifestation of "the 
Chui'ch visible," is borne out by its spire and tower being 
conspicuous for many miles round. The interior contains 
some fine old tombs and monumental brasses, with an oak- 
carved roof, as ancient as the fourteenth century, ornamented 
with some grotesque evidences of the carver's skill. A monu- 
ment to Dr. Drury, by Westmacott, on the north side of the 
nave, represents the schoolmaster seated, with two of his 
pupils standing before him — the likenesses identifying them 
with Sir Eobert Peel and Lord Byron. Sir Samuel Garth, the 
poetic physician, who compounded drugs with doggrel, and 
mixed up medicine with metaphors, till it was difiScult to say 
which was the worst to swallow, is also here interred. Besides 
a marble tablet, with an inscription by Dr. Parr, there is a 
brass monument in the nave, over the body of the founder of 
Harrow School, whose liberahty is commemorated in the 
following inscription: — " Here lyeth buried the bodye of John 
Lyons, late of Preston, in this Parish, Yeoman, deceased the 
11th day of October, in the year of our Lord 1592, who hath 
founded a fi'ee grammar school in the parish to have continu- 
ance for ever, and for maintenance thereof and for releyffe of 
the poore and of some poore scholars in the Universityes, 
repairing of highwayes, and other good and charitable uses, 
hath made conveyance of lands of good value to a coi"poration 
granted for that purpose. Prayers be to the Author of all 
Goodness, who makes us myndfid to follow his good example." 
Having thus seen the last resting-place of the founder, we may 
naturally turn to the school itself, a plain red brick building, 
in the Tudor style, which, though it may be considered as one 
of the most renowned of our public institutions for educational 
purposes, is singularly deficient in exterior attractions. John 
Lyon established it in 1585. All resident householders in the 
parish of Harrow have the inalienable right of sending their 
6ons to this grammar-school to receive instruction, but other 
parts of the country are the main source of the pupils, who 



24 HARROW. 

chiefly board with the masters. The worthy founder cveB 
specified ia his instractions what the amusements of the 
scholars were to be — such as " driving a top, tossing a hand- 
ball, running and shooting." He required parents to furnish 
their children with bowstrings and shafts, to pursue the exer- 
cise — much in the same way as academies now. require the 
parental offering of the six towels and silver spoon, which 
seldom come back with the boarders — and it was customary, 
till a very recent period, for the scholars to shoot for a silver 
arrow at an annual display of archery. The pupils being, 
however, now expected to be "men of mark" in a different 
sense, trials of skill by public speech have been wisely sub- 
stituted. The number of scholars is generally about 250, and 
among the most eminent of those who have been here educated 
may be mentioned the names of Sir William Jones, Dr. Parr, 
(the most profound of our Greek professors), Sheridan, Bruce 
(the Abyssinian traveller), Sir Robert Peel, and Lord Byron, 
who has, perhaps, more largely than any of the rest contributed 
to the interest attached to the locality. He is still remembered 
by some of the old village sexagenarians as a wild, racketty 
and romantic boy, ready for any fight, frolic, or diversion that 
might present an opportunity for getting out of bounds. He 
himself tells us, in one of the letters given in Moore's life, of 
the regard he had for a particular spot in the churchyard, 
"near a footpath on the brow of the hill looking towards 
Windsor, and a tomb under a large tree (bearing the name of 
Peachey or Peachie), where I used to sit for hours and hours 
when a boy." He echoed this sentiment afterwards in verse, 
as follows: — 

" Again I behold where for hours I hare pondered. 
As reclining at eve on yon tombstone I lay, 
Or round the steep brow of the churchyard I wandered, 
To catch the last gleam of the sun's setting ray." 

As besides there can be no place better fitted for meditation 
than a country churchyard, it may be some satisfaction to 
choose the same spot with the poet, and thence survey the 



HA5IWEIX. 25 

very panorama that so often delighted him who, self-expatriated 
while he lived, Avas destined to be, when dead, excluded from 
that niche in Poet's Comer which his own genius and English 
justice had a right to demand. 

Taking the footpath to Wembly, which leads from the end 
of Harrow Church through a delightfully rural district, the 
pedestrian can skirt the large domain of Wembly Park, and 
rejoin the railway, homeward bound, at the Willesden Station, 
But, if he should not be pressed for time, nor indisposed by 
fatigue, we by all means suggest an extension of his walk 
through Sudbury and Greenford to the Hanwell Station on 
the Great Western Railway. It is about five miles distant, but 
the road leads through the most secluded and beautiful por- 
tions of what is called the Vale of Middlesex. Greenford 
Church is small, but very ancient, and has some brasses and 
tombs to repay a passing inspection. In that part of the river 
Brent which meanders between Greenford and Perivale, 
sanguine piscators have stoutly maintained the excellence of 
the pike and trout to be found therein, and the disciples of 
Izaak Walton are frequently encountered, with rod and line, 
along its margin. The WhamclifFe \-iaduct, a massive and 
elegant structure raised upon eight arches, and extending over 
a length of three hundred yards, is a conspicuous feature of 
the Great Western Railway as we approach Hanwell, which 
has antiquity enough to figure in tlie early records as one of 
the places given by King Edgar to Westminster Abbey. The 
new gothic church, built, at a cost of £4,000, in 1841, on the 
site of the old one, has been much and deservedly admired, 
and blends harmoniously with the surrounding scenery as the 
spectator comes in view of it from the Uxbridge Road. In the 
churchyard adjoining lies interred the eccentric Jonas Han- 
way, who has been generally accredited as the first who 
introduced the umbrella into this country, and who, setting 
the example by always carrying one himself, encountered 
such opposition among the prejudiced as to cause it to be 
denounced as " a profane attempt to ward off from man the 



26 EALIKO — ACTON. 

rain that fell from heaven." His biographer, Pugh, says thai 
" after carrying one for nearly thirty years he saw them come 
into general use," so that, as Jonas died in the year 1786, this 
statement enables us to fix his first appearance with an 
umbrella about the year 1756. But the greatest object of 
interest in Hanwell is unquestionably the County Lunatic 
Asylum, which now contains upwards of 1,400 inmates. The 
grounds are laid out with much taste, and with spacious 
apartments, indulgent directors, kind attendants, and an im- 
proved treatment, those who recover from these melancholy 
attacks of mental aberration are much more numerous than 
formerly. One of the most striking changes in the manage- 
ment has been that arising from the complete abolishment of 
personal restraint. In June 1839, when Dr. Conolly was 
appointed superintendent of the Hanwell Asylum, 40 patients, 
out of the 800 it then contained, were almost constantly 
strapped down. In 1844 he added in his report that, " by the 
abolition of restraint the general management of the insane 
has been freed from many difficulties, and their recovery in 
various degrees greatly promoted." Since this period the system 
so successfully adopted here has been pursued with the same 
advantages elsewhere. The medical assistants are all gentle- 
men of the highest standing in the profession, and Dr. 
Conolly has two able coadjutors in Dr. Hitchman and Mr. 
Aulsebrook. The Charity School, founded in 1484, has an 
endowment of £100 per annum. Either by road or rail the 
excursionist will hence return through Ealing and Acton. 
Ealing Church was built in 1739, but besides a tomb to Old- 
mixon, a dramatist of little note, there is nothing wortliy of 
mention. It is a plain brick structure, with a square tower and 
turret. Henry Fielding, the novelist and magistrate, had a 
residence in this village, which has long been a favourite spot 
for academies. Castlebar was the seat of the Duke of Kent. 
Acton, though now connected with the metropolis by the long 
line of houses by Notting Hill and Bayswater, was once a 
secluded hamlet, centred in a thick forest of oaks, and hence 



ACTON. 27 

called Oak Town, of which its present name is a corruption. 
Towards the southern part of the parish is the fine castellated 
mansion, surrounded by its massive and ancient elms, known 
as Berrymead Priory. It was formerly tenanted by Sir 
Edward Bulwer Lytton, but has lately reverted, after cen- 
turies of secular tenancy, to its original purpose as a monastic 
house, having been purchased about six years since by the 
sisterhood of Le Sucre Cceur de Jesus, to form a branch 
convent from their principal establishment near the Chamber 
of Deputies at Paris. The Convent of Berrymead contains 
nearly 50 nuns, who — to their praise and unbigoted liberality 
be it spoken — support out of their funds a free day school, 
which is chiefly attended by Protestant children. The Earls 
of Essex and Warwick made Acton their head-quarters prior 
to the conflict — which now carries an odd sound with it — of 
the Battle of Brentford. Shepherd's Bush, a pretty suburban 
district, leads to Brook Green, on the southern extremity of 
which is a Catholic School and Chapel of some celebrity, 
called " The Ark." In June, 1843, an extensive Catholic 
establishment was removed here from some former incon- 
venient premises in King Street, Hammersmith, under the 
title of the '• Convent of the Good Shephei"d." Adjoining the 
convent is an " Asylum for Penitent Women," an excellent 
institution, under the personal superintendence of the religious 
ladies who are recognised as " the Daughters of our Lady of 
Charity of the Good Shepherd." Within the last few years 
no less than forty foundations have been formed from the 
parent house of this religious order, branches of which are to 
be met with in the most extreme parts of the earth. One of 
these has been established even at Algiers, thus bringing the 
African region within the scope of its mission, and there are 
two in North America. The order, founded in 1651, at Caen 
in Normandy, comprehends nearly 300 religious sisters, who 
consecrate their life and devote their energies to the many 
charitable objects which constitute the basis of the institution. 
Not the least commendable among these is the reception 



18 BROOK GBEEN. 

afforded by them to that unfortunate class who are too often 
driven by obloquy and despair to seek a refuge from the 
contempt of society in the grave. The Magdalens, who are 
thus sheltered from an outcast existence, live under regulations 
approved by the church, and under the guidance of these 
charitable sisters. They have houses of preservation, and 
schools for orphans, who are subsequently adopted by the 
foundation. Not having any other funds than those derived 
from voluntary contributions and the work of the penitents, 
the relief afforded is necessarily restricted in amount. The 
" Waste Land Almshouses" are for aged inhabitants of the 
parish, chiefly supported by the proceeds arising from the sale 
of the waste lands. Another half-hour and we can get to 
Oxford Street, and ponder over the panoramic progress we 
have made round the environs, as we discuss the welcome 
adjunct to our rambles in a late repast of adequate sub- 
stantiality. 






EXCURSION in. 

CHELSEA-CREMORNE GARDENS-FULHAM-WEST LONDON 
CEMETERY— THE BISHOP'S PALACE— CHISWICK— STRAND-ON- 
THE-GREEN— BRENTFORD — OSTERLY HOUSE— SIGN HOUSE 
AND PARK— ISLEWORTH— HOUNSLOW— SUNBURY— HARLING- 
TON — NORWOOD — SOUTHALL STATION — BROMPTON AND 
KNIGHTSBRIDGE. 

Taking the steamboat to Chelsea — a mode of conveyance 
that would marvellously have perplexed its visitors in the last 
century, when the watermen at the Arundel Stairs plied 
"sculls to Ranelagh," and thought themselves scantily paid 
by a fare of as many shillings as we now give pence — we dis- 
embark at the Cadogan Pier, and come at once under the 
shade of the old trees that line the ancient parade called 
Cheyne "Walk. It is not our purpose to enter into any 
elaborate dissertation concerning the antiquities of a place so 
well kno^^•n, but we cannot resist reminding the rambler of a 
few particulars that may interest him as he passes the vene- 
rable church. It is not more than two hundred years old, 
though some remains of the structure built on the same site, 
in the reign of Edward II., are still apparent. The monument 
of Sir Hans Sloane is the first seen at the south-east comer, 
and records the death of that eminent physician and natu- 
ralist, in 1753, at the age of 92. Another more antique is 
that to Dr. Edmund Chamberlayne, who died in 1 703, ^vith 
an inscription stating, that along with the body several of the 
Doctor's unpublished works are buried, having been sealed 
up and thus disposed of, to render them more likely to go 
down to posterity. Several attempts have been made to obtain 
these, but all have proved fruitless. On the south wall, near 
the east end, and in an arched recess, is Sir Thomas More's 



so CHISWICK. 

tomb, plainly decorated with the crest and armorial bearings 
of the deceased, beneath which is a long inscription on a black 
marble slab. He was executed on the 6th of July, 1535. 
Beaufort Row stands upon the site of More's mansion, where 
Erasmus and Holbein, the famous painter, were his frequent 
guests. Turning up the lane by Cremorne Gardens, now 
metamorphosed into the most popular place of public amuse- 
ment near London, we pass onward through a region chiefly 
cultivated by market gardeners till we come to the Fulham 
Road, leading through Walham Green. The West London 
Cemetery, consecrated in 1840, extends from the Fulham Road 
to Sir John Scott Lillie's ground. The cemetery is open for 
public inspection, free of charge, from seven to sunset daily, 
except Sundays, when it is closed till noon. Opposite is the 
Normal School, surrounded by a brick wall, and not far distant 
is the palace of the Bishop of London, a stately mansion, girded 
by a moat, and environed by gardens filled with the rarest and 
most choice exotics. A road here leads to Hammersmith 
Bridge, opened in 1827, and the glance at the river, with this 
light and elegant structure spanning its surface, is very 
pleasing. The Suspension Bridge is 20 feet wide and 688 feet 
long, and cost £80,000. Bi'andenburgh House, where Queen 
Caroline, the dishonored consort of George IV., fixed her 
residence, is now pulled down. Continuing our way, along 
the banks of the river, past the osier beds, we enter Chiswick, 
and make our way at once to the church, which has a fine 
old tower and some interesting monuments. From an inscrip- 
tion, affixed to the western wall on a tablet, we learn that the 
tower was founded by one William Bordall, the ^-icar, who 
died in 1435, and this is believed to be the period of the 
erection of the whole fabric. On the south side of the chancel 
is the tomb of Sir Thomas Chaloner, who discovered the first 
alum mines worked in England. He was a soldier too, and 
did no little service to the conntrj^ ere he finally expired in 
1516. Near unto him are the remains of Charles Holland, the 
tragedian. Here lies Hogarth , who spent the last days of his 



CHISWICK. 31 

life in the neighbourhood, and who had upon his decease an 
epitaph from Garrick, which is, perhaps, the best and happiest 
efFort of that actor-author's pen. Being the inscription, and 
still sufficiently legible, quotation is needless. Loutherbourg, 
the artist, the Duchesses of Cleveland, and Somerset, and a 
few others who made some stir in the world, after their various 
fashions, are also buried within the churchyard. A narrow 
path between two brick walls, on the opposite side of the 
church, will lead to Chiswick House, one of the seats of the 
Duke of Devonshire. Besides possessing all the attractions 
of an elegant mansion, surrounded by beautiful grounds, 
originally laid out by Kent, the celebrated landscape gardener, 
it is memorable as having been the place where Charles James 
Fox died, in 1806, and where Canning also breathed his last, 
twenty-one years afterwards. There is an obelisk and a 
temple, adorned with some iine statues, as well as a lofty gate 
of ratiier imposing proportions. TlieFetes of ihe Horticultural 
Society dra^v numbers of visitors to the spot every year. 
Just beyond the boundary of the Devonshire Estate is the 
little straggling parish of Strand-on-the- Green, where Joe 
Miller, to whom has been affiliated all the jokes, good, bad, 
and indifferent that have shaken the sides of our ancestors 
for a century, is reputed to have lived and died, if he ever 
had any existence at all, which some are now disposed to 
deny. Kew Bridge, replacing an old wooden one taken 
down in 1789, is a neat stone structure, and forms a con- 
venient communication with all parts of Surrey. Not far 
distant is Heathfield House, a dilapidated structure, once 
the mansion of Lord Lovat, who was executed on Tower 
Hill in 1746, on a charge of high treason. We now enter 
Brentford, the older part of the town being the well-remem- 
bered source of George the Second's admiration, who is said 
to have exclaimed, in a tone of enthusiasm, " I like to ride 
through Brentford, it isli so much like Hanoverish." Recent 
improvements have somewhat relieved the town from this 
opprobrium. The immense chimney of the Grand Junction 



32 BREKTFOBO. 

Water Works is the first object that catches the eye. It ia 
nearly 150 feet high, and is ascended by 120 circular iron 
steps. The engines propel 30,000 gallons of water every 
minute to the Paddington main to supply the metropolis. 
More in the town, and nearly opposite the gas-works, is Sir 
Felix Booth's famous distillery, said to be the largest in the 
world : £420,000 is annually returned to Government for duty 
alone, and 500 oxen are fattened on the grains. There are 
some large establishments here for various purposes, particu- 
larly Hazard's brewery and Rowe's soap manufactory. Osterly 
House, originally erected by Sir Thomas Gresham in the reign 
of Elizabeth, was rebuilt in 1760, and is now the residence of 
the Earl of Jersey. There are some magnificent rooms in the 
interior. Crossing Brentford Bridge, a narrow turning to the 
left will conduct us to Sion Park, where is a spacious though 
plain mansion, occupied by the Duke of Northumberland. In 
1440 there was a convent on the site, which is said to have 
had a subaqueous tunnel under the river, terminating at 
Kew; and scandalously alleged to have enabled the monks, 
on the other side, to pay sly visits to the fair sisters of St. 
Bridget. After the manor had been granted in 1604 to the 
Earl of Northumberland, tlie mansion afforded a tcmporaiy 
shelter to the children of Charles I., and here Queen Anne 
resided before she ascended the throne. At the southern 
extremity of Sion Park we pass through a small wicket into 
the pretty village of Isleworth, where the excursionist, if he 
feel so disposed, can cross the Thames by ferry for a penny, 
and proceed to Richmond by the banks of the river. (See 
Richmond.) 

Isleworth Church is ancient, with a picturesque tapestry of 
ivy about the tower. An extensive tract of highly cultivated 
market-ground lies about here, and hence the metropolis 
derives an immense vegetable supply. A road through 
Smallbury Green conducts us to Hounshw, a town which has 
almost relapsed into insignificance since the opening of the 
Great Western Railway. The inns are shorn of all their 



HARLINGTON. 33 

former glory, and it has been calculated that 1,800 horses 
have been taken off the road from this place alone. In the 
High Street is Trinity Church, built in the Italian style. 
Hounslow Heath, the terror of travellers fifty years ago, is 
now harmlessly devoted to the dwellings of peaceful house- 
holders. The powder mills of Curtis and Harvey are to the 
south of the town, in the midst of a copse of fir trees. There 
are ban*acks for cavalry, that are wont to exercise on the 
open grounds adjacent, Sunbury, an agreeable village on the 
banks of the Thames, is about three miles from the powder 
mills. 

Should opportunity oifer, we can specially commend a walk 
of four miles from Hounslow to Harlington, a little village by 
Cranford Bridge, where there is an old church with a fine 
Norman porch. In the churchyard is a venerable yew tree, 
said to have been growing in the year 1729, with a trunk even 
then measuring twenty feet in circumference. It was sixty 
feet high, and according to a local poet, one John Saxy — ^who 
perpetuated its fame in verse — could have sheltered beneath 
its branches a troop of horse -guards. Viscount Bolingbroke 
was very partial to this spot, and D'Oyley House, where he 
resided, has still a wing remaining, to attest the stability of the 
Viscount's mansion. We are now three miles from the Southall 
Station, and can proceed thither by Cranford Park, where the 
late Countess of Berkeley lived and died, and so return by the 
Great "Western Railway to town. Cranford and West Drayton 
are not worth extending the walk in a more northerly direc- 
tion, and if the excursionist goes from Harlington round by 
Norwood, a short mUe and a half from the Southall Station, 
he will be fully recompensed by the seclusion of this primitive- 
looking village, which contains a church built five centuries 
ago, and noticeable for its wooden belfry and tiled roof. The 
route home, by the Great "Western Railway, has been already 
indicated in our previous excursion. 

Should the Fulham Road have been approached throngh 
Knightsbridge, instead of from Chelsea, it should not be for- 



34 BBOMPTON. 

gotten, as we pass Sloane Street, that Han's Place, close .by, is 
somewhat remarkable for the number of eminent authoresses 
who have there resided, amongst whom have been Lady Caro- 
line Lamb, Lady Bulwer, Miss Mitford, Miss Emma Roberts, 
and Letitia Landon,the " L. E. L." of poetic memory. Bromp- 
ton has long been the favorite abiding-place of actors and 
authors. At Brompton Square (No. 22), died George Colman 
" the younger," in October 1836, aged 74. A little beyond the 
square is Brompton New Church, in which John Reeve, the 
Adelphi Momus, was consigned to his last home. His tomb is 
to the back of the church, on the left, and clase to the pathway. 
By the " Admiral Keppel," in the Fulham Road, is a row of 
houses called AmeUa Place, in the last of which Curran died, 
in 1817. The tavern called the " Goat-in-Boots" has a sign 
touched up, if not painted, by George Morland, the eccentric 
but clever artist. The odd appellation of the inn doubtless 
arose from the Dutch legend, " Mercurius is der Goden Boode" 
(Mercury is the Messenger of the Gods), which has been 
twisted into an English shape as we at present behold it. 




EXCURSION IV. 

STOKE NEWINGTON — STAMFORD HILL - THE NEW 
RIVER — TOTTENHASI — ENFIELD — WALTHAM CROSS— CHES- 
HUNT— RICHARD CROMWELL— BROXBOURNE—IZAAK WAL- 
TON— HODDESDON— HERTFORD — PANSHANGER— AMWELL— 
WARE— HATnELD. 

Our next excursion is in a northerly direction, and may be 
comfortably accomplished in a day, Avith the aid of omnibuses 
and short stages, interspersed with a little pedestrianism. 
Taking a conveyance from either the Bank or Bishopsgate 
Street to Stoke Newington, which is three miles from Shore- 
ditch, we may first alight to look at the church, an interesting 
antique structure, with some curious monuments. At a house 
in Church Street, more prominently venerable than the rest, 
Daniel De Foe resided, and is said within those very walls to 
have written " Robinson Crusoe." There is no necessity for 
another word to enchain the attention of the spectator — the 
old building becomes in a moment encompassed with a halo 
of glory, and the familiar associations inseparably linked with 
the Desert (Island come thronging up around us as we gaze. 
A little further on Mrs. Ireton, the daughter of Cromwell, once 
lived, for in her day this was the fashionable suburb ; and a 
few doors beyond, at a house somewhat similar in its primitive 
aspect to that we have pointed out as De Foe's, the kind- 
hearted Dr. Watts fixed his dweUing. Howard the Philan- 
thropist — what a noble distinctive adjunct to a name I — Dr. 
Aiken, Mrs. Barbauld, and others of similarly peaceful literaiy 
pursuits, were long inhabitants of these precincts, and it is just 
the kind of tranquil locality one would fancy them to have 
chose«. At the back of the church is a lane lined with lofty 
trees, known as " Queen Elizabeth's Walk," and at the end is 
I> 2 



36 WOOD GBEEN. 

a building where she is said to have held her assignations with 
the Earl of Leicester. Abney Park Cemetery, on the site of 
the Manor House belonging to Sir Thomas Abney, the 
intimate friend of Dr. Watts, is set apart for Dissenters, and 
has some grounds neatly laid out. Stamford HiU, overlooking 
the pleasant valley of the Lea, is a little further on, and 
amongst its elegant villas is one belonging to the Rothschilds'. 
Kear here is the New River reservoir, which supplies London 
with water. During the thirty miles of its course, it is crossed 
by 215 bridges. The descent not being great enough, a huge 
steam pump is kept going night and day, which forces it up to 
the snmmit of the highest houses. Sir Hugh Myddleton, the 
originator of this noble scheme, fixed upon two springs in 
Hertfordshire for the source, one near Ware at Chadwell, the 
other at Amwell. After many delays, the work was commenced 
on the 20th of February, 1608. In about five years it was 
completed, and in 1 622 the skilful and enterprising " citizen 
and goldsmith" was knighted. For eighteen years afterwards 
it yielded no dividend, and then but a trifle ; now a share is 
worth £14,000. About thirty million gallons of water are 
daily distributed through the pipes of the company. 

On the high road between Homsey, Tottenham, and South- 
gate, is Wood Green, as charming a spot as its sylvan name 
implies, and one of the many niral nooks with which the 
environs abound. On one side of the Green a district church 
of stone, in the early English style, with a bell gable, has been 
lately erected in excellent taste. Here is the Asylum of " The 
Fishmongers' and Poulterers' Institution," of which the first 
stone was laid by Lord Morpeth in June, 1847. It is a cleverly 
designed building, of the Elizabethan character, and the central 
portion especially, with its towers and vanes, very eflectively 
picturesque. The plot of ground attached comprises nearly 
four acres, so that there ^vill be ample room in this happy 
haven for the peaceful enjoyment of those who may seek in it 
a retreat from the storms of life and consolation in beclouded 
old age. On the opposite side of the church (as appears from 



TOTTENHAM. 37 

an inscription) the Letter-press Printers of London have 
selected a plot of ground, for the erection of almshouses for 
the aged members of their profession. A more salubrious spot 
could not have been chosen; and we understand that the 
first stone of the asylum will shortly be laid. W. Webb, Esq., 
the architect of the Fishmongers' and Poulterers' Institution, 
has also been selected to erect that of the Printers. How 
glorious the thought, in threading the environs of our great 
metropolis, that almost every pleasant nook has been made 
available for such philanthropic designs as these neighbouring 
and kindred institutions. 

On the same road, two miles from Stoke Newington, is 
Tottenham with its ancient cross, one of those erected by 
Edward L in 1290, as an affectionate remembrance of it being 
one of the funeral resting places of Eleanor, his deceased 
Queen. The station of the Eastern Counties Railway is a 
short distance from the town. Two miles further is Edmonton, 
linked with the humours of the adventurous flight of John 
Gilpin, as recorded by Cowper, and which are perpetuated 
pictorially by a painting over the " Bell" Inn. The church 
in Lower Edmonton has got some attractions in its old tower 
of three centuries back, but the remaining portion was rebuilt 
in 1772. This is now also a railway station. Winchmore Hill, 
a mile to the west, is a favourite suburban retreat. Enfield 
has nothing to boast of now but the memory of its " Chase," 
an extensive tract of woodland, formerly a favorite hunting 
ground for royalty, but disafforested in 1777. White Webbs, 
near Enfield Wash, was whei'e the associates of Guy Fawkes 
retired to await the result of the Gunpowder Plot. Skirting 
the woody glades of Theobalds Park, where Lord Burleigh 
built a palace in the reign of Elizabeth, and where James I. 
died in 1625, we enter Hertfordshire, and approach the neat 
town of Waltham Cross, eleven miles from town by the road, 
and a railway station of the Eastern Counties. The cross that 
gives name to the place was restored in 1834, and is a fine 
specimen of the pointed style of architecture in vogue about 



38 CHESflTJNT. 

the thirteenth century, in the last ten years of winch it was 
originally built. It is one of about fifteen that were erected by 
King Edward I., in memory of his affectionate and devoted 
wife, Eleanor of Castile, to mark the spot where the bier rested 
for the night in the long and melancholy journey which he 
himself made with it from Herdely in Nottinghamshire, near 
which place she died, to Westminister Abbey, where her 
remains were interred in the Chapel of Edward the Confessor. 
It is of an hexagonal form, and divided into three compart- 
ments, each presenting a statue of the Queen. The cross is 
adjoining the Falcon Inn, a little out of the main road as you 
go down to the railway station. 

Cheshunt, two miles further, is chiefly noticeable for its park, 
where Wolsey had a temporary residence, and where Richard 
Cromwell, the son of the Protector, and himself the brief 
possessor of a similar dignity, passed the quiet hours of his 
peaceful life. To avoid the curiosity of visitors he went fcr 
some time under a feigned name, sometimes calling himself 
Mr. Wallis, and more generally Mr. Richard Clark. He was 
then a quiet country old gentleman, who seemed contented to 
forget all his former family greatness. Dr. Watts used fre- 
quently to come over from Stoke Newington and pay him a 
visit, and he used to say that he never heard him allude to his . 
former station except once, and then only in a very distant 
manner. Here he hunted, shot, hawked, and fished to the last 
year of his green old age. It is reported that he enjoyed an 
uninterrupted state of health, and that when he was 80 years 
old he could gallop his horse for miles without drawing rein 
or feeling fatigue. Richard Cromwell died here at the age of 
86, in 1712, the last year of the reign of Queen Anne. His 
remains were removed with some pomp from Hertfordshire to 
Hampshire, and deposited near those of his beloved wife 
Dorothy, and his son Oliver, in the chancel of Hnrsley Church. 
Several Roman coins have been found in the neighbourhood. 

Broxhoume, the next place of interest, is sixteen miles from 
town, and a pleasant fishing station, on the Cambridge line of 



BBOXBOCBN£. 39 

the Eastern Counties Eailway, near where the branch diverges 
to Hertford and Ware. The church is old, with some handsome 
monuments, and the country round is pastoral and well watered 
by the Stort and Lea. Crossing the little bridge over the railway, 
it is worth while to visit Want's hostel, and whilst enjoying a 
flsh dinner, which you can have here in perfection, with 
" chops to follow," in the most approved city fashion, indulge 
in a reminiscence of old Izaak Walton, who hath so intimately 
associated himself with the scenery hereabout. The " flowery 
meads" and the " crystal streams," on which he loved so much 
to descant, are Uttle changed by time. We can almost point 
out the spot where he gives his precepts to the scholar, as they 
sit and discourse, whilst " a smoking shower passes off, freshen- 
ing all the meadows and the flowers," and fancy the exact 
honeysuckle hedge where they did once rest " while a shower 
falls, and encounter a handsome milkmaid and her mother, 
who sing to them that smooth song, which was made by Kit 
Marlow — 'Come, live with me and be my love,' and the 
answer to it, which was made by Sir Walter Ealeigh, and 
sung by him in his younger days." And we can swear to the 
identity of the little ale-house, well known to Piscators, wheie 
they found " a cleanly room, with lavender in the windows, 
and twenty ballads stuck about the walls," and where, ha\-ing 
made a supper of their gallant trout, they drink their ale, tell 
tales, sing ballads, or join with a brother angler, who drops in, 
in a merry catch till sleep overpowers them and they retire to 
their hostess's two beds, the " linen of which looks white and 
smells of lavender," whilst old Izaak sheds his last benediction 
on " all that are lovers of virtue and dare trust in Pro\'i- 
dence and go a-angling." Who hath not felt the luxuriant 
freshness which abideth for ever in the pages of the " Complete 
Angler?" 

Hoddesdon is peculiarly noted for some of the oldest inns in 
the county, and for a fine water conduit in the centre of the 
town, the gift of Sir Marmaduke Kawdon, in 1679, and com- 
memorated by the poet Matthew Prior. Eawdon House is a 



40 HEBTFOBD. 

venerable mansion, recently restored from the state of decay 
into which it had fallen a few years back, and should be visited 
by all who have an eye for the picturesque of architecture. At 
Haileybury, north of the road, is the East India College, 
founded in 1806, for the scientific education of the civil 
officers sent out to India. The Oriental languages arc here 
taught to about a hundred students. 

Hertford, the county town, is five miles from Hoddesdon, 
and twenty-one miles from Shoreditch Church, by the road, 
agreeably situated on the Lea near its junction with four 
smaller rivers, and in the midst of a fine agricultural district, 
long famous for its growth of com. It has all the importance 
derived from antiquity, and once had a castle, where Queen 
Elizabeth resided, and John, King of France, and David, King 
of Scotland, were both kept prisoners of war. The wall and 
mound are still visible, but a private residence was about a 
century ago erected on its site. Besides the two remaining 
parish churches — there were once five — the County Hall and 
the Preparatory School for Christ's Hospital are the chief 
public buildings. This admirable scholastic establishment is 
in the London Road, and affords education to about 400 boys 
and 80 girls, having an infirmary for 100 children, whenever 
occasion should require. Two miles from Hertford, on the 
banks of the river Maran, is Penshanger, the seat of Earl 
Cowper, who has claimed the honor of a descent from the 
poet. In the park, which is laid out in a pretty sylvan style, 
is a remarkable oak, measuring at five feet from the ground 
nearly seventeen feet in circumference. Amwell, the chief 
source of the New River supply, is three miles from Hertford, 
and worth the pilgrimage to its picturesque precincts. The 
spring issues from a hill on which the church is built, and 
there is a monument here to the memory of Sir Hugh Myd- 
delton, erected in 1800, which records the success of his 
experiment. The family seem to have derived little benefit 
from the enterprise and exertions of their ancestor. Lady 
Myddelton, the mother of the last Sir Hugh, received a 



WABE. 41 

pension of twenty pounds per annum from tlie Goldsmiths' 
Company. 

Ware is so closely linked to Hertford, by its two miles of 
intermediate buildings, that few who visit Hertford would 
leave the neighbourhood ^vithout going to Ware, if only on 
account of the famous Great Bed, which has enjoyed, in 
legendary lore and antiquarian history, a reputation of some 
six centuries. The curious may behold this remarkably antique 
piece of furniture at the Saracen's Head Hotel, from which 
the late Duke of Norfolk offered to take it to Arundel Castle, 
for a consideration of 100 guineas; but the proprietor of the 
inn manfully resisted the temptation. The dimensions, how- 
ever much beyond modem dormitory notions, are somewhat 
disappointing — 12 feet square being the superficies covered. 
Antiquarians differ, much as usual, about its origin, but the 
majority assign it to the time of Edward the Second, whose 
state bed it is presumed to have been. The church contains 
some brasses dating back to 1454, and there is a tomb com- 
memorative of Elizabeth de Clare, grand-daughter of Edward I. 
Sir Henr)' Fanshaw, to whom Ware Park belonged in 1625, 
is also buried here. 

Hatfield, seven miles from Hertford, and five from St. 
Alban's, is a deUghtful drive when opportunity offers. Hat- 
field House, the seat of the Earl of Salisbury, is a fine old 
mansion in the Elizabethan style, and was honored, in the 
autumn of 1846, by a visit from her present Majesty. It was 
originally the palace of the Bishop of Ely, and was rebuilt by 
Sir Robert Cecil, afterwards Earl of Salisbury, in the early 
part of the reign of James I. In 1835 a portion of the west 
Aving was destroyed by fire, and the dowager Marchioness 
burned to death, since wliich period it has been closed to the 
public. On the right, at the end of the avenue in the Park, is 
" Queen Elizabeth's oak," said to be the tree under which 
Elizabeth was sitting when the news of Queen Mary's death 
was brought to her. A great part of the trunk has been pro- 
tected by a leaden covering and enclosed by a low fence. The 



4S HATFIELD. 

garden adjoining the remains of the old palace is a quaint 
specimen of Elizabeth's horticultural taste, and contains a 
rock-work basin of water, with at each angle a mulberry tree, 
reputed to have been planted by King James, her successor. 
The celebrated vineyard was cleared away a few years ago, 
and is now turned into a kitchen garden. The interior is 
magnificently appointed, and within the last three years no 
less than £50,000 have been expended on the embellishments. 
The views from the mansion are exceedingly fine. To the 
west is the venerable Abbey Church of St. Albans, then 
Sandridge Hill, and Brockett Hall and Park, the seat of Lord 
Melbome, appear, with Wood Hall Parks towards the north ; 
Digswell House, Tewin "Water, and Panshanger, lay to the 
east; and the south presents two interesting localities in 
Gobions, near North Mims, once a, seat of Sir Thomas More, 
and Tyttenhanger, once the residence of the powerftil Abbots 
of Saint Albans, to which, in 1528, Henry VHI. and Queen 
Katherine retired for the summer season. 

We have here made a somewhat extensive detour, but the 
excursionist can consult his own inclination as to the way in 
which he shall avail himself of the means of progress to the 
localities indicated. Be it remembered, however, that the line 
of the Eastern Counties Railway passes for some distance 
almost parallel with his route. There are stations at Waltham 
(14 miles by railway), Broxboume (19), St. Margarets (22), 
Ware (24j), and Hertford (26), at either of which he can take 
the train, and so return to town. Or the return from Hatfield 
can be varied by taking the road back through Chipping 
Bamet, Whetstone, and Highgate, a distance of twenty miles. 
Coaches and minor conveyances pass along what may still be 
called the " Great North Road" several times a day. 



EXCURSION V. 

GREAT "WnBSTERN RAILWAY -SLOUGH-WINDSOR— 
WIXKSOK CASTLE— SAIKT GEOIIGE'S CHAPEL— THE EOUND 
TOWEPv— AKRAXGEilENTS OF ADMISSION— THE STATE APAKT- 
MENTS-THE SLOPES— WINDSOR PARK— THE LONG WALK- 
EQUESTRIAN STATUE OF GEORGE III.— VIRGINIA WATER— 
BELVIDERE— THE CASCADE-FISHING TEMPLE— THE GRE- 
CIAN RUIN— BISHOPSGATE— SHELLEY— STOKE POGIS-GRAY— 
BURNHAM BEECHES. 

For the accomplishment of this we must resort to steam, 
and the locomotive powers of the Great Western Eaihvay, 
which M'ill enable us to alight at the Slovgh Station, and bring 
us within a short distance of the many interesting localities 
that will occupy the busy day before us. Slough is 1 8 miles 
from the Paddington Terminus, and within three miles of 
Windsor, to which an omnibus will convey the passenger for 
a small charge. Crossing the bridge, which spanning the 
Thames connects Eton with Windsor, we may glance at the 
celebrated college, founded in 1442 by Henry VI., console our- 
selves with a passing quotation from Gray's ode on a distant 
prospect of its towers, for the bygone glories of its vanished 
" Montem," and then enter the royal town, that has been for 
centmies the chosen seat of the kings and queens of England. 
Windsor Park and Windsor Castle possess, with the surround- 
ing scenery, inexhaustible attractions for the stranger, and lose 
none of their charms even after an acquaintance of several 
years. So long back as the days of the early Saxons, when 
Windkshora was its name, from the windings of the Thames, 
a castle stood at Old Windsor, appropriated to the crown as a 
palatial residence. William the Conqueror next built a far 
better structure on the present site, and laid the foundation of 



44 WIXDSOB. 

its future importance. Here Henry I, held his court, and hav- 
ing enlarged the castle with " many fair buildings," kept tht 
festiral of Whitsuntide with xmusual solemnities in 1110. In 
the time of Stephen it was the second fortress in the kingdom, 
and sustained several changes of masters during the wars 
between the crown and the barons, in the turbulent reigns of 
John and Henry HL Edward the Third was bom here, and 
extended the structure, on a most expensive scale, in 1356. 
William of Wykeham was the architect, and it is recorded 
that in one year 660 workmen were impressed to be employed 
at the king's wages — no very liberal remuneration, we may be 
«ure, when the architect himself had only a shilling a day. 
The festivals of the Order of the Garter were here celebrated 
with great splendour. For the especial service of this order, 
Edward HL erected at Windsor a chapel dedicated to St. 
George, but the present beautiful chapel is of much later date. 
It was begun by Edward IV., who found it necessary to take 
down the original fabric, on account of its decayed state, and 
was not completed until the beginning of Henry the Eighth's 
reign- It was here that Richard IL heard the appeal of high 
treason brought by the Duke of Lancaster against Mowbray 
poke of Norfolk, and which ended in the former becoming 
Henry IV. The Earl of Surrey, imprisoned for violating the 
canons of the church by eating flesh in Lent, here wooed the 
muse in his retirement, and here was the last prison of that 
unfortunate monarch, Charles I. Passing over the intermediate 
reigns, as presenting little of interest in connection with the 
building, we may mention that George HI. dwelt for many 
years in a white-washed house, at the foot of his own palace, 
till he was perstiaded at length to occupy the old castle. 
George IV., soon after his succession, commenced some exten- 
sive improvements, and, under the superintendance of Sir 
Jefirey Wyatville, it was thoroughly renovated, and in many 
portions rebuilt. With this brief preparatory glance at its 
former history, we now proceed up Castle Street, and com- 
mence our rapid survey of its most prominent features. 



friNDSOB. 4ft 

The usual entrance is under Henry the Eighth's gateway; 
leading to the lower ward, and close to that magnificent 
specimen of Gothic architecture, St, George's Chapel Though 
this building and its decorations are pre-eminently beautiful, 
it is perfectly of a devotional character. The richly decorated 
roof, supported on clustered columns, the " storied windows, 
richly dight," the banners and escutcheons of the knights of 
the garter, and the massive floor of marble, all unite to produce 
a striking and impressive effect. As works of art, the monu- 
ments in the chapel are, perhaps, disappointing. Edward IV. 
is buried here, beneath that remarkable specimen of elaborate 
ingenuity, the iron tomb of Quintin Matsys, the artist-black- 
smith of Antwerp ; and in the opposite aisle, under a plain 
marble stone, his unhappy rival, Henry VI., is interred. Henry 
Vm. and Charles I. are entombed under the choir, without any 
memorial, and there is a cenotaph, by Wyatt, to the memory 
of the Princess Charlotte. At the foot of the altar is a subter- 
raneous passage, communicating with the tomb house, in 
which is the cemetery of the present race of monarchs, 
containing, amongst others, the remains of George HI. and 
Queen Charlotte, George IV., William IV., the Duke of 
York, Duke of Kent, and the Princesses Amelia, Augusta, 
and Charlotte. From the east end of the lower ward we pass 
into the middle ward, bounded by a low battlement, enclosing 
a deep moat cultivated as a garden. The Bound Tower, with 
the royal standard floating from the summit, hence appears to 
great advantage, and twelve counties are within its ken. 
This " keep," as it is sometimes called, as it formed the prison 
of the castle till 1660, is not a perfect circle, for it is 192 feet 
in its greatest diameter, and 93 in its smallest; its height is 
80 feet from the top of the mound ; watch tower twenty-five 
more; and its entire height, fi-om the level of the quadrangle, 
148 feet. In the Great Quadrangle, at the base of the Round 
Tower, is a bronze statue of Charles H., erected, in 1679, at 
the expense of one Tobias Rustah, described by Evelyn as " a 
very simple, ignorant, but honest and loyal creature," and 



46 WINDSOR. 

who thus bestowed a thousand pounds. The pedestal, by 
Grinling Gibbons, is very lino. On the north side of tliis 
quadrangle is King John's Tower, and the space between this 
and the massive square tower beyond is occupied by the 
Queen's Audience Chamber, at which the suite of state apart- 
ments commences. The projecting doorway is the state 
entrance, on a line with which is the vestibule, continued 
through to George the Fourth's Tower in the North Terrace, 
whence there is a magnificent vista of nearly three miles. 
The North Terrace is open every day; the others, only on 
Saturdays and Sundays. Whilst on this subject, we may as 
well append the other regulations of admission. St. George's 
Chapel is open daily, during Divine service, at half-past 10, 
a.m., and half-past 4, p.m. The Bound Tower is open daily. 
The State Apartments on Mondays, Wednesdays, Thursdays, 
and Saturdays; hours from U till 6. 

Within our prescribed limits it is manifestly impossible to 
give more than a mere enumeration of the State Apartments, 
which form a series unequalled in Europe for magnificence. 

Approaching through the gothic porch at the north-west 
angle of the upper ward, we are led by a fine staircase to 
the Audience Chamber, hung with Gobelin tapestry, and 
embellished with a painted ceiling by Verrio. The Presence 
Chamber, or Ball-room, for which purpose it is generally 
appropriated, is a spacious apartment, 90 feet long, 32 broad, 
and 33 feet high, opening, at the southern end, into St 
George's Hall, and terminating at Cornwall Tower on the 
North Terrace. The decorations are in the Louis Quatorze 
style. The Vandycke Room comprises a fine collection of the 
works of that eminent master, twenty-two in number. The 
" Five Children of Charles the First," over the chimney piece, 
and a picture representing that unfortunate monarch on 
horseback, at the end of the room, are particularly admired. 
The Guard Chamber is very attractive to visitors, and is 78 
feet long and 31 feet high. It contains Chantrey's colossal 
bust of Nelson, and part of the foremast of the Victory; the 



WINDSOB. 4? 

Blenheim white banner; a bust of the Duke of Marlborough; 
Cellini's silver shield, inlaid with gold, presented by Francis I., 
of France, to Henry VIII. ; and a bust, by Chantrey, of the 
Duke of Wellington, with the last annual banner presented 
on the Waterloo anniversary, in memory of the tenure by 
which Strathfieldsaye is held. The walls are decorated with 
arms. St. George's Hall, with its portraits of eleven of our 
latest sovereigns, and the Waterloo Gallery, pictorially pre- 
senting the most eminent statesmen and soldiers connected 
with that decisive battle, are sure to engage the visitor's 
attention. The other apartments are enriched with numerous 
paintings by the most distinguished masters, but the catalogues 
describing them are so cheap, and so complete, that it would 
be useless for us to encroach on pages that might be much 
better occupied than by giving a mere list of pictures, which 
space would not permit us to dwell upon as they deserve. 

Beneath the North Terrace are the Slopes, extending into 
the Home (or Little) Park, which has been for a long period 
an appurtenance to the castle. Near the avenue called 
" Queen Elizabeth's Walk" tradition still points out a 
^^•ithered tree as the identical oak of "Heme the Hunter," 
who, as the old tale goes, 

" Sometime a keeper here in Windsor Forest, 
Doth all the winter time, at still midnight, 
Walk round about the oak with great ragged horns." 

The Long Walk, affording perhaps the finest vista of the kind 
in the world, extends from the principal entrance of the castle 
to the top of a commanding hill in the Great Park, called 
Snow Hill, a distance of three miles. There is a splendid 
prospect at the end, affording a panoramic view of several 
memorable places, endeared by historical and poetic associa- 
tions, A mile to the eastward, on the same hilly ridge where 
we stand, is " Cooper's Hill," the subject of a pleasant descrip- 
tive poem by Sir John Denham ; Windsor Castle appears in 
all its massive grandeur beneath us; to the right is the 



49 frmosoR. 

Thames, seen beyond Charter Island, and the little plain of 
Runnymede, where the turbulent barons extorted " Magna 
Charta" from King John ; whilst far beyond, in the blue 
distance, are the hills of Harrow and Hampstead. On the 
summit of this hill, where the avenue terminates, was placed, 
in the summer of 1832, a colossal bronze equestrian statue of 
George the Third, by Westmacott. The total elevation is 
more than 50 feet; the statue, without the pedestal, being 26 
feet high. The likeness is very striking, but the Roman 
costume, adopted as being more manageable in art than a 
square-cut coat and military jack boots, will convey an odd 
notion, a thousand years hence, of the King of England's dress 
in the nineteenth century. 

Of course, those who can afford the time will not leave 
Windsor Park without seeing Virginia Water, which was 
planted and the lake formed by Paul Sandby, when the Duke 
of Cumberland, the hero of Culloden, resided at the lodge, 
which still bears his name, about three miles from Windsor. 
The lake is the largest artificial piece of water in the kingdom, 
if that can be called artificial where man has only collected 
the streams of the district into a natural basin. The surround- 
ing scenery is exceedingly pleasing and picturesque. After 
passing through a woody dell, we come to some serpentine 
walks, which lead in different directions ; those to the right 
conducting us to a somewhat steep hill, on the summit of 
which stands a handsome gothic battlemented building, called 
the Belvidere ; and those to the left leading to the margin of 
the lake. At the head of the lake is a cascade, descending 
some twenty feet, over massive fragments of stone, mto 
a dark glen or ravine. Near it is an obelisk standing on a 
small mount, and bearing the following inscription, added by 
William IV. : — " This obelisk was raised by the conunand of 
George II., after the battle of Culloden, in commemoration of 
the services of his son William, Duke of Cumberland, the 
success of his arms, and the gratitude of his father," There 
is a road hence to the banks of the lake, where we can reach 



BLACKKEST. 49 

a rustic bridge, and get a fine view of the waterfall and its 
cavern adjacent, formed of stones brought from Bagshot 
Heath, where they indicated the ruins of a Saxon cromlech. 
At the point where the lake is widest, a fishing temple was 
erected by George IV. 

A bold arch carries the public road to Blachnest, over a 
portion of the grounds, and adjoining is an ornamental ruin, 
called the " Temple of the Gods," manufactured from some 
really antique fragments of Greek columns and pediments, 
that used to lie in the court yard of the British Museum. The 
effect is striking, and much more so if the spectator will for a 
moment let fancy delude him into the belief that he is gazing 
on a real temple of ancient Athens. The tall trees, clustering 
round in one part, and in another opening on to glades of 
truly sylvan aspect, impart a romantic beauty to the landscape 
from this point, which utterly defies description. It is worth 
while to cross the little bridge above alluded to, and, passing 
one of the streams that feed the lake, pursue its windings 
among the underwood, or strike into the path which leads to 
Bishop" s-gate, a beautiful ■\-illage, environed by all the charms 
of wood and water diversity. Here resided for some time 
Shelley, who has consecrated the allurements of this spot by 
some of his finest poems, written in the vicinity. There are 
several ways of approaching Virginia Water, each so attractive 
that it is diflScult to decide upon the best; but, by whichever 
route the excursionist comes, we would suggest the adoption 
of another road for the return. About two miles beyond the 
to^vn of Egham is a neat wayside inn, called the " Wheat- 
sheaf" from the garden of which there is direct access to the 
lake. From Egham Hill a road diverges through "Windsor 
Park to Reading, nineteen miles distant. A few hundred 
yards above the inn is a branch road to the right, leading to 
Blacknest, where there is also an entrance through the 
keeper's lodge. Besides this, there is a dehghtful drive of 
five miles to Virginia Water from Chertsey. 

Stoke Pogis, two miles from Slough, is hallowed gronnd, 

£ 



60 BURMHAM BEECHES. 

from containing the churchyard which suggested Gray's well- 
known " Elegy," as well as the remains of the pensive poet 
himself. Gray died on the 30th of July, 1771, in the 55th 
year of his age, and was buried, according to his own affec- 
tionate wish, by the side of his mother; thus adding another 
poetical association to this beautiful and classic region. Bum- 
ham is a small, but most picturesque village, four miles from 
Slough, with a marvellous minature forest, called " Bumham 
Beeches" — the finest spot in the world for a pic-nic, and 
absolutely unrivalled for the romantic character of its sylvan 
scenery. There are the ruins of an Augustine Nunnery close 
bj', which, though now partly fashioned into a farm-house, had 
the honour of having been built by an expatriated king of the 
Homans, in 1228. A pedestrian of congenial temperament, 
who rambles down here in the dawn of a summer's morning, 
would find it no easy matter to tear himself away before 
twilight. The Great Western Railway is again our connecting 
link with town, and hence the train will bear us back to those 
gas-lit streets, which, in their noisy bustle and confusion, will 
contrast so strangely with the sylvan glades and tranquil 
solitudes from which we have just departed. 



EXCURSION VI. 

NORTH-WESTERN RAIL^WAY (Station EUSTOX SQUAEE) 
—WATFORD— CASHIOBURY HOUSE AND PARK— ST. ALBAN'S- 
THE ABBEY— TOMB OF LORD BACOX— SOPWELL NUKNERY 

— KING'S LANGLEY ABBOT'S LAXGLEY NICHOLAS 

BREAKSPEARE— BOXMOOR— TWOWATERS-THE RETURN BY 
RAILWAY. 

The North Western, or London and Birmingham Railway, is 
the best and quickest mode of transit for oar present interest- 
ing excursion. We have ahready described {Excursion II.') 
the scenery along the line to Harrow; so, to avoid unnecessary 
repetition, we shall presume a ticket has been taken to the 
Watford Station, and proceed with our delineation of the 
objects encountered betweeen that place and our temporary 
destination. After leaving the Harrow Station, we cross in a 
few minutes the Oxhey ridge, about thirteen miles from 
London, and pass from Middlesex into Hertfordshire. It is 
a portion of that high ground which runs round the northern 
and western extremity of the former county. We next enter 
the valley of the Colne, which river is formed by the junction 
of several small streams uniting at North Mims; about half- 
way between St. Albans and Watford, it is joined by another 
stream, and then, passing Watford, it takes a western course 
to Rickmansworth, and finally falls into the Thames at 
Staines. Just beyond Bushey a handsome viaduct conducts 
us over the Colne, and shortly after we arrive at the Watford 
Station, which is about a mile from the town. 

Watford, which though eighteen miles from London by 

railway, is only fifteen by the road, is a busy, thriving, and 

populous little town, albeit deficient in those points of 

picturesque or antiquarian interest whicli are so pleasant to 

k2 



fi2 SAINT ALBAN's. 

encounter in a trip out of town. It consists principally of one 
long street, in the centre of which is the church, an ancient 
structure with a fine embattled tower and lofty spire, and 
containing two noticeable monuments, by Nicolas Stone, to 
the two Sir Charles Morrisons. But, if Watford itself be scant 
of attraction, ample amends are made by a certain large 
domain at the north-west of the town, called Cashiobury, the 
seat of the Earl of Essex, and said to have been anciently the 
residence of the Kings of Mercia. The mansion once belonged 
to the monastery of St. Albau's, and is still, though much 
modernised by Sir Jeflfrey Wyatville, a fine specimen of the 
castellated buildings of yore. There is within, besides some 
rare articles of vertu, a good collection of modem paintings, 
which are shown to visitors throughout the year, on Mondays 
and Thursdays, from 1 1 till 5. The park is an extensive tract 
of woodland, well kept, and laid out in the best taste, with a 
sort of Swiss summer-house on the banks of the Grand 
Junction Canal, by which it is intersected. We need hardly 
remind the reader that one of the favorites of our early play- 
going days, " sweet Kitty Stephens," of musical memory, 
afterwards became the Countess of Essex. Grove Park, 
adjoining, is the residence of the Earl of Clarendon. 

Seven miles from Watford is St. Albans, twenty-one miles 
from town, and so venerable that, even in the time of the 
Romans, it was an ancient city. The ground about here is 
full of historical recollections. It was here that, in 1066, 
Fritheric, abbot of St. Alban's, compelled the Norman Con- 
queror to concede some important privileges. Here, in 1455, 
was fought the famous battle in which the Duke of York 
defeated Henry VI., and took him prisoner; and here, six 
years afterwards, the Yorkists, under the king-making Earl of 
Warwick, were defeated by the Lancastrians under Queen 
Margaret, and the king liberated. But, regardless of other 
attractions, we stroll first to the old Abbey, which, even in its 
present decadence, exhibits conspicuous signs of its former 
power and grandeur. The Abbey of St. Alban's is now 600 



SAIKT ALBAN'S. 63 

feet long, 174 feet wide, and 65 feet high. The elevation of 
the great tower is 1 74 feet. Oft'a the Great, King of Mercia, 
was its founder in 795, and dedicated it to Alban, a native of 
Verulam, who had been a soldier at Rome, suffered martyr- 
dom for his faith, and, being the first Briton who had been 
put to death for his religious opinions, was called " England's 
first martyr." From this period the ancient Verulam of the 
Romans was thence called St. Alban's. For more than seven 
centuries the Abbey flourished in great splendour ; its build- 
ings, erected from time to time, causing it to resemble a town 
rather than a religious house. The kings of the twelfth and 
thirteenth centuiies were frequently entertained in its magnifi- 
cent apartments, and its annual revenue was estimated at 
£2,500 — an enormous sum in the days when a fat oxen Avas 
purchaseable for a few shillings. This immense establishment 
has now dwindled to a few scattered walls, a gatehouse, and 
the present parochial church, which, at the destruction of 
convents, was purchased by the corporation. In consequence 
of some large masses of the Abbey battlements falling in upon 
the roof, in 1832, the whole fabric was put under repair, at an 
outlay of nearly £20,000, and it now presents an edifice equal 
in magnitude as well as decoration to some of our largest 
cathedrals. Here may be seen the monuments of many 
illustrious men, particularly those to St. Alban himself, Sir 
John Mandeville, one of our earliest travellers, who well 
earned the privilege of seeing " strange things," and the 
" good Duke Humphrey" of Gloucester, brother of Henry V., 
whose hospitality still lingers in the memory of those who 
have no other dinner invjtation. But there is yet another 
shrine, to which a pilgrimage must be made. The great Lord 
Chancellor Bacon — whose residence was Gorhambury House, 
now the seat of the Earls of Verulam — lies buried in the 
ancient church of St. Michael's, under a marble tomb, where 
his effigy in stone records his world-wide fame, with the 
simple inscription of " Franciscus Bacon." The ruins of 
Sopwell Nunnery, where Iving Henry VHL and Anna Boleyu 



54 abbot's ianglet. 

used to come and have a quiet iete-d-tete to themselves, may 
still be seen on the south bank of the Verulam river. If the 
excursionist wishes to diversify his route home, we recom- 
mend to him a stroll of about five miles to Kin^s Langley, 
where there is a station at which he can rejoin the railway. 
King's Langley was a part of the royal demesne, and there 
was anciently here a royal house, where Edmund de Langley, 
fifth son of Edward HI., was bom. This same prince lies in 
the old Norman Church on the hill, by the river side ; and 
here, also, Eichard 11. was for a short time interred. Abbot's 
Langley is chiefly remarkable as the birthplace of Nicholas 
De Camera, better known as Nicholas Breakspeare, and who 
becoming Pope, as Adrian IV., is the only Englishman that 
ever assumed the Papal dignity. It is said, when a youth he 
endeavoured to obtain admission into the monastery of St. 
Alban's, but being rejected, on account of his incomplete 
studies, he went to Paris and applied himself to dirinity. He 
seems to have well remembered the place of his nativity, for, 
when he attained the triple crown, he gave to the Abbot of 
St. Alban's a grant of precedence over all others. Should our 
companion like a ramble with his rod and line, he will 
probably go on to the Boxmoor Station, two miles from Hemel 
Hempstead, with its agreeable environs. Boxmoor can only 
boast of a few houses, but the words " Fishery Inn," on a 
plain but rural wayside hostel, will remind the disciple of 
Izaak Walton that he is close upon Twowaters — the junction 
of the Bulboum and the Gade, a famous Hertfordshire 
locality for fly-fishing. Here he can await the arrival of the 
last train from Birmingham, and, having profited by the 
exercise of the "gentle craft," return in time to have the 
produce of his piscatorial skill prepared for supper, or to 
enjoy the more substantial chop, with its appendages, at one 
of the west-end refectories. 




'^^'^'if^^^^-s^ii^^''''^^^^^ 



EXCURSION I. 

TO RICHMOND BY RAILWAY (Station WATERLOO ROAD) OR 
STEAMBOAT — VAUXHALL —WANDSWORTH — PUTNEY— WIM- 
BLEDOX— BARNES— BARN ELMS— MORTLAKE— KEW GARDENS 
—RICffMOND— RICHMOND HILL AND PARK— PETERSHAM— 
TWTCKENHAM— T^VICKENHAM AIT— TEDDINGTON— HAMPTON 
COURT— THE PALACE.— BUSHEY PARK— THE STATE APART- 
JtENTS— THE PICTURE GALLERIES— THE PRIVATE GARDENS 
—THE WILDERNESS — THE MAZE — THE \TNE — ARRANGE- 
MENTS OF ADMISSION— KINGSTON-SURBITON— THE RETURN 
BY THE SOUTH-WESTERN RAILWAY. 

EiCHJiONB is now rendered so promptly accessible by railway, 
that few at all familiar with the scenery of the Thames 
above bridge will prefer to the rapid transit of the train the 
slower progress of the steamboat. As we intend, however, to 
give an ample account of those places that, contiguous to the 
railway, are yet observable on the south bank of the river, our 
description will serve the same, whether the trip be made by 
land or water. Starting from the terminus of the South- 
western Railway, Waterloo Road, we speedily cross the open 
tract of garden ground kno^\^l as Battersea fields, where, in 
1604, was grown the first asparagus known in England. 
Clapham old church, with the rising terraces of villas and 
trees seen beyond, next engages our attention to the left. In 
the opposite direction is Battersea Church, containing a monu- 
ment, by Roubiliac, to Henry St. John Viscount Bolingbroke, 
who was bom here; and another to one Sir Edward "Winter, 
an East India Captain in the reign of Chai"les II., who, among 
other extraordinary feats duly recorded, overthrew sixty 
mounted Hindoos single-handed. Wandsworth, on the banks 
of the " crystal Wandle," which here flows into the Thames, 
has several oil, corn, and other mills worked by the stream. 



58 PUTNEY. 

Nameroos elegant villas hare been erected in the neigh- 
bourhood within the last few years. The church was rebuilt 
in 1780, and the tower in 1841; one of Henry the Fifth's 
oflScers, who served at Agincourt, is buried here. In addition 
to several free-schools, maintained by charitable bequests, there 
are various places of worship free for Nonconformists, and 
here assembled, in 1570, the first congregation of Presbyters. 
Putney was even famous for its fisheries in the time of the 
Normans, but steamboat traffic has long since destroyed its 
reputation. It has been the birthplace of Cromwell, the 
blacksmith's son and friend of Wolsey ; and Gibbon, the 
historian. The old church, though restored in 1836, was 
built in the latter part of the fifteenth century, and exhibits 
several interesting brasses and tombs. At the Bowling-Green 
House died the celebrated William Pitt, in 1806. Here is the 
" College of Civil Engineers," founded a few years back, to 
impart that mechanical and mathematical knowledge so 
essential in these days of steam enterprise. Putney is still 
the famous rendezvous of those interested in aquatic sports, 
and rowing matches are frequent from this point. The old 
clumsy bridge, built in 1729, cost £24,000, and is yet a 
profitable investment. Wimbledon and its Common, that even 
thirteen hundred years ago was pronounced the most ancient 
of English parishes, is the scene of one of Caesar's encamp- 
ments, and may be reached from Putney through Roehampton. 
Wimbledon Park, belonging to Earl Spencer, is replete with 
pretty detached spots of landscape beauty, and affords a 
choice sylvan ramble to the eastern portion of Richmond 
Park. On the southern banks of the river, linked by an 
elegant terrace of modem buildings, called the Castelnau 
Villas, with the Suspension Bridge at Hammersmith, is 
Barnes. In the churchyard is a monumental tablet to Edward 
Rose, a citizen of London, who, dying in 1653, left £20 to the 
parish poor, on condition that roses should be planted on his 
grave and annually preserved. At Bam Elms, Sir Francis 
Walsingham, who died here in 1590, frequently entertained 



WEST SHEEN. 59 

Queen Elizabeth. Tonson, the bookseller, and Cowley, the 
poet, also made this their residence, and memorials of both 
are preserved. Mortlake, a mile further, and two miles to the 
east of Eichmond, has an ancient church, founded in the 14th, 
and rebuilt in the 16th century. Dr. John Dee, the astrologer, 
and Partridge, a quondam shoemaker and prophetic almanack 
concocter, both lie in the churchyard. We now discern the 
woody glades which surround Richmond, the scene of 90 
many historical events, and the haunt of pleasant pic-nic 
parties from time immemorial. At West Sheen, to the left of 
Mortlake, and utterly destroyed in 1769 to form a lawn in 
Richmond Park, there was formerly a Carthusian Monastery, 
founded by Henry V., in 1414, and rendered memorable as 
the place of refuge for Perkin Warbeck, and the burial place 
of James IV., of Scotland, after the battle of Plodden. An 
obsenatory now occupies the site. The lofty structure seen 
across the trees to the right is the tower of the Chinese 
Pagoda in Kew Gardens, rising 163 feet above the surround- 
ing foliage, and forming a conspicuous object for many miles 
round. The collection of rare exotics in these grotmds, 
unequalled in Europe, is open to public inspection daily, 
except Sundays, from twelve till dusk, and will equally repay 
the visit of the mere curious sight-seeker and the more pro- 
found botanist. George III. frequently resided here, and 
expended large sums at various times in the erection of a 
palace, which George IV. pulled down in 1828; and, in its 
place, substituted a more commodious building, afterwards 
given by William IV. to the Duke of Cumberland, now Iving 
of Hanover. Gainsborough and ZofFany, two of our most 
celebrated artists in two very distinct styles, both lie in Kew 
churchyard; the church itself, built in 1714, and afterwards 
much enlarged, presents nothing remarkable. At a house on 
Kew Green lived Sir Peter Lely. 

Richmond, where either train or steamboat will enable us 
to stop, is just the pleasant point for an excursionist to reach 
bent upon exercise and enjoyment. The walks by the margin 



60 BICUMONS. 

of the river, the leafy luxuriance of the park, the famed view 
from the hill, and the varied scenery of its environs, through 
which wind the prettiest green lanes imaginable, all tend to 
make this " region of loveliness" attractive beyond the day. 
Mouarchs and monks had a wonderful knack long ago of 
discovering the prettiest places for a summer retreat round 
London, and, accordingly, we find it was a royal residence at 
a very early period. At Richmond Green, where the only 
remains of the " auncient« Palace of Sheen" is to be found, in 
a gateway at the north-east angle. Kings Edward I. and IL 
lived, and the third King Edward died — broken-hearted, it is 
said, for the loss of his heroic son, " The Black Prince." 
Here, too, died Anne, Richard the Second's Queen, who first 
introduced the side-saddle for the benefit of succeeding female 
equestrians. In 1492 Henry VH. gave a grand tournament, 
and here, in 1509, he died. Queen Elizabeth also breathed 
her last in this regal abode, which, after minor changes 
connected with royalty, was finally demolished by George HI. 
in 1769. Passing through the town, which contains on its 
outskirts several elegant villas of the nobility, we proceed up 
the hill to the Park, which embraces an area of about 2,300 
acres, and is nearly nine miles in circumference. It was 
enclosed by Charles I. with a brick wall, and this became one 
of the articles of his impeachment. An attempted exclusion 
of the pubhc, in the reign of George HI,, caused a spirited 
resistance from a brewer named Lewis, who, by an action at 
law, established the right of footway, and since then no 
further encroachment upon the privileges of the public has 
been essayed. The umbrageous solitudes of this fine park, 
and the comprehensive and beautiful views from its summit, 
extending over the fertile vaUey of the Thames, and even 
including the distant turrets of Windsor Castle, have long 
been the theme of eulogy in book and ballad. At sunset, 
when the far-off masses of foliage are sobered down by 
twilight, and the river, catching the last beams of the sinking 
orb, gleams through the leafy landscape like a fairy lake, in 



BICHHOND. 61 

which every ripple yields a golden sparkle, the scene is truly 
enchanting. In Richmond Church, a neat structure, partly 
ancient and partly modem, there are several interesting 
memorials of the departed great. The first that arrests atten- 
tion is a marble tablet on the wall, with a medallion head 
sculptured on it, beneath which is the following inscription : — 
"Edmund Kean — died May, 1833, aged 46 — a memorial 
erected by his son Charles John Kean, 1839." Here, too, is 
the grave of the poet James Thomson, with the Earl of 
Buchan's copper tablet, the inscription on which time has 
almost made illegible. He was buried without the wall, but 
the church having been enlarged to make room for the organ, 
the wall now passes right across his coffin, cutting the body, 
as it were, in twain. Near the communion table lies Mary 
Ann Yates, a celebrated tragic actress and once the Mrs. 
Siddons of her day, but now her very name appears forgotten. 
In a whimsical epitaph to a Welsh lawyer, one Eobert Lewes, 
it is recorded to his honour, that " he was such a great lover 
of peace and quietness, that when a contention began in his 
body between Life and Death he immediately gave up the 
ghost to end the dispute." Among the rest may be mentioned, 
tombs to the memory of Joseph Taylor, the original "Hamlet ;" 
Dr. Moore, the author, and father of the Corunna-renowned 
General, Sir John Moore; Gilbert Wakefield, the critic; 
Viscount Fitzwilliam, who founded the Museum at Cam- 
bridge; and Edward Gibson, an artist of repute, Richmond 
has a theatre, first opened, in 1719, by the facetious Will 
Penkethman, and carried on for some time by Cibber; it was 
the scene of many of Kean's triumphs in the mimic art, but 
latterly it has been badly managed and worse frequented. 
Near it is " Rosedale House," where Thomson lived and died 
(August 22nd, 1748), and having lately become the residence 
of the Earl of Shaftesbury, it is known as " Thomson's Villa." 
Many relics of the poet, and some manuscript portions of 
" The Seasons," in his own handwriting, are here carefully 
preserved. Richmond Bridge was biiilt in 1777. 



62 TWICKENHAM. 

Petersham, reached by a pleasant rural lane leading from 
the hiD, is delightfully situated in the valley beneath, and has 
some fine springs of water, which are duly taken advantage of 
by a Hydropathic establishment recently formed. Ham House 
was once a royal domain, where James I., Charles L, Charles 
II., and James IL, the latter by compulsion, occauionally 
resided. About a mile west from Richmond is Twickenham, 
near which is Twickenham Ait, or Eel-Pie-Island, consecrated 
from time immemorial to the votaries of that esteemed delicacy. 
Pope's Villa, now demolished and having a number of villas 
on its site, has long associated the poet's name with the placa 
In the village church may be seen liis tomb, with a Latin 
inscription written by his friend Warburton, Bishop of Glou- 
cester, and a more characteristic one beneath, written by 
the bard himself. The once celebrated actress, " Kitty Clive," 
is also buried in this sequestered church; she died in 1785, 
aged 75. The almshouses of the Carpenters' Company occupy 
a prominent situation beyond. Nearly a mile further is 
Strawberry Hill, where the celebrated Horace Walpole 
collected the famous assortment of valuables and curiosities, 
which, under the direction of the late Earl of Waldegrave, 
were consigned to the hammer of George Robins, and dis- 
persed among those private individuals who were wealthy 
enough to become possessed of the varied contents of this 
gothic hall. 

Teddington, two miles further, is well known to the angling 
fraternity, and here the first "lock" is encountered in the 
upward progress along the Thames. It is worth while to turn 
aside from the road, and have a look at the old church, which, 
though recently modernised, presents in its south aisle a 
specimen of architectural stability of 800 years back. " Peg 
Woffington," the clever actress and beautiful woman, whose 
history is of itself a romance, was here buried in 1720, and 
Hi&re are other monuments of remunerative interest and 
antiquity. 

Hampton Court, to which another two miles will bring us, 



HAMPTON CODET. 63 

requires a volume exclusively devoted to its attractions to 
render them due justice, but in default of a professed '■^ Guide" 
our account — ^though necessarily compressed — will be found 
sufScient to prevent any of its "Lions" being overlooked from 
a want of their being enumerated. The situation of Hampton 
Court, which stands on the north bank of the Thames, about 
twelve miles from London, is so happily described by Pope, 
that we caimot resist quoting the favorite passage: — 

" Close by those meads for ever crowned with flowers. 
Where Thames with pride survey's his lising towers, 
There stands a structure of majestic ftame. 
Which from the neighbouring Hampton takes its name ; 
Here Britain's statesmen oft the fall foredoom 
Of foreign tyrants and of nymphs at home ; 
Here thou great Anna, whom tliree realms obey. 
Dost sometimes coimsel take, and sometimes— tea." 

In summing up the points of its early history, we may briefly 
state that in the thirteenth century the manor of Hampden 
was vested in the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem. Cardinal 
Wolsey, its illustrious foimder, was the last of the enlightened 
churchmen of old, whose munificence patronised that style of 
building; which, originating with the ecclesiastics, seemed to 
end in his fall. He is supposed to have furnished the designs, 
and having been commenced in 1515, the building, when 
finished, was in so magnificent a style, that it created great 
envy at court. The banquets and masques, so prevalent in 
the age of Henry VHI,, were nowhere more magnificently 
ordered than here; and however vast the establishment of 
the Cardinal, it could not have been more than sufiicient 
icx the accommodation of his train of guests. Numerous 
sovereigns since that time made it their temporary abode, 
and the last who resided here were George H. and his Queen, 
since which period various members of the com-t have 
occupied the apartments, the crown reserving the right of 
resuming possession. At present about 700 of decayed 
gentlemen and gentlewomen, with their servants, occupy 



64 HAMPTON COTJHT. 

olSSces connected with the establishment, to which they are 
recommended by the Lord Chamberlain. The Lion gate, 
which fronts the entrance to Bushey Park, an appurtenance 
granted to Queen Adelaide, is the chief avenue; and, con- 
tinuing through the Wilderness, by a path overshadow^ed 
vfith lofty trees, we find ourselves by the side of the palace, 
in firont of which extends a long walk ornamented with 
parterres, an exotic shrubbery, and a spacious fountain in the 
centre. The grand east front extends 330 feet, and the grand 
south front 328 feet, from the designs of Sir Christopher 
Wren. The grand staircase and the guard chamber lead to 
the picture galleries, to which so many cheap catologues 
furnish descriptive guides, that our enumeration of their 
magnificent contents is unnecessary. Suflice it to say the 
paintings are about 1,000 in number. Retracing our steps to 
the middle court, we may observe, under the archway, the 
flight of steps leading to Wolsey's HaU. It is 106 feet long, 
40 feet wide, and illuminated by thirteen windows, each 
fifteen feet from the ground. On one of the panes of the bay 
window at the end, extending nearly to the floor, the young 
Earl of Surrey wTote his lines to the fair Geraldine. On each 
side the walls are hung with tapestry of the most costly 
material and rarest workmanship, said to have formed a 
portion of the gifts interchanged between Henry and Francis, 
at the celebrated " Field of the Cloth of Gold." In the centre 
of the dais there is a doorway leading to the withdrawal 
room. The beautiful gardens in front of the palace have been 
repeatedly the admiration of all ■I'isitors. They were laid out 
by William III., in the Dutch style, with canal and water- 
coiirses, and the compass and shears were industriously 
employed in making birds, beasts, and reptiles, out of yew, 
holly, and privet. The private gardens extend from the sides 
of the palace to the banks of the river, and contain, besides 
some remarkably fine orange trees, many of them in full 
bearing, a fine oak nearly 40 feet in circumference, and an 
ancient elm called " Eiing Charles's swing." The large space 



HAMPTON COCBT. 65 

of ground on the opposite side of the palace is called " The 
Wilderness" and was planted with shrubs by order of William 
and Mary. Most of the walks are completely overshadowed, 
and on a hot summer day a stroll through these umbrageous 
paths is exceedingly inviting. In this portion of the grounds 
is situated the Maze, so constructed that all the paths 
apparently leading to the centre turn oif to a more distant 
part, and involve the inquisitive adventurer in constant per- 
plexity. Though we are not quite sure that the revelation 
does not spoil the chief sport, the secret of success in thread- 
ing this miniature labyrinth is, that after the first turning to 
the left the right hand should be kept towards the fence the 
whole of the remaining way. The greatest curiosity, however, 
is perhaps the famous Vine, which, sheltered and nurtured in 
a hot-house, is 110 feet long, and, at three feet from the root, 
is 27 inches in circumference. It bears from two to three 
thousand bunches of the black Hamburg grape in the season. 
We may now mention the arrangements made for the recep- 
tion of visitors. 

The State Apartments, Pablic Gardens, and Picture Gal- 
leries are open daily (Fridays excepted), throughout the year, 
from 10 till dusk ; and on Sundays after 2 p.m. The Public 
Gardens have generally a military band in attendance, and a 
small fee is expected by the gardener for exhibiting the 
orangery and the vine. 

We hence recommend the excursionist to proceed across 
Kingston Bridge, erected in 1827, to Kingston, a distance of 
not much more than two miles, and take a train homeward 
by the South- Western Kailway. Kingston Church was the 
scene of the coronation of many of our Saxon kings, who 
here held their court, and the stone on which the ceremony 
took place is still preserved near the Courts of Assize. A 
striking illustration of the creative powers of a railroad is 
manifested by the rise of a new town by the station, called 
Surbiton, or lOngston-on-Eailway. Although this was, only 
a few years back, a mere piece of waete ground, it is now a 



66 KIHG8TON. 

populous and thriving -settlement, with a fashionable assem- 
blage of shops continued along one wide street, from the 
Railway Hotel to a considerable distance down the Eongston- 
road. Near this spot took place the last struggle of the 
Royalists in favor of Charles the First, who was then a 
prisoner in Carisbrooke Castle ; but, with that fatality which 
seemed to attend all their efforts, the cavaliers were repulsed 
with great slaughter, Lord Francis Villiers slain, and the 
Earl of Holland captured, with others of the nobility. Select- 
ing an easy seat in the compartment of a comfortable carriage, 
we shall be now borne back in an hour to the terminus at 
Waterloo-road, whence we started, and this rapid progression, 
ailer our agreeable sauntering through the meadows and bye- 
paths, will, to our thinking and experience, be a very pleasant 
mode of terminating a very pleasant pUgrimage, during 
which we trust you have found in us a very communicative 
companion. 



EXCURSION 11. 

SOUTH-WESTERN RAIIiTVAY — THAMES DITTON - 
ESHER— CLAREMONT — WALTOX-ON-THAMES— WEYBEIDGE— 
BYFLEET— ST. GEORGE'S HILL— COBHAM—OCKHAM— WOKING 
—NEWARK PRIORY — CHERTSEY— THE OLD MONASTERY— 
COWLEY — SAINT ANNE'S HILL — LALEHAM — STAINES — 
SHEPPERTON. 

The South- Western Bailway is a very eligible medium for 
excursionists. There is scarcely a station from which the 
rambler can go forth, and fail to find something in the way of 
the beautiful and the antique. Beyond Kingston, the road to 
which embraces the chief places described in the previous 
excursion, there is a delightful range of country, full of 
inexhaustible attractions. Thames Ditton, and the Moulseys, 
East and West, are capital spots for a quiet day's fishing, and, 
as such, are much frequented in the season ; the former is as 
pleasantly situated by the margin of the river as poet or 
painter could desire, and the latter are thus named from their 
position at the junction of the Mole with the Thames. There 
is a wooden bridge connecting the village with Hampton, and 
on Moulsey Hurst — once the arena for combats pugilistic — the 
Hampton races now take place. A mile from the Claremont 
station is Esher, dwindled into comparative insignificance 
compared with the time when Cardinal Wolsey retreated 
here, to the palace of the Bishops of Winchester, having, after 
his disgrace, been compelled by the king to retire from the court. 
This stately structure, situated on the banks of the Mole, here 
widening to a goodly stream, was built by "William Wainflete, 
who was consecrated Bishop of Winchester in 1447, and was 
probably by him annexed to that see. A picturesque well by 
the roadside, called " Wolsey's Well," and a castellated turret, 
known as "The Water- Gate House," are the only visible 
t 2 



68 CltABEMOKT. 

indications of his former residence in this magnificent abode. 
At Sandon Farm, near the station, may be traced the ruins of 
an old priory, founded in the reign of Henry II. Esher 
Church is a small but neat structure, with a curious bit of 
antiquity in the belfry, which contains a bell said to have 
been brought hither from St. Domingo by Sir Francis Drake. 
The walks in the vicinity are delicionsly pastoral. To the 
east of Esher is Claremont, where the Princess Charlotte lived 
and died, and where her Majesty has frequently retreated of 
late from the pomp and pageantry of the court. Its former 
history is sufficiently curious to be given. Sir John Vanbrugh, 
the author-architect, first built a house here for himself, but, 
with a strange perversity of taste, it was erected in the lower 
grounds, where there was no possibility of a prospect. Sir 
John soon got tired of his new dwelling, and gladly parted 
with it to Thomas Holies Pelham, Earl of Clare, who 
made some extensive and judicious alterations. A purchase 
of 2,000 extra acres of ground was skilfully employed in the 
formation of a park, on a mount in which was raised a 
castellated building that he entitled Clare-mount, and this 
appellation it has since borne. The next purchaser was Lord 
Clive, the conqueror of India, and under his direction the 
famous " Capability Browne " — who gained this odd addition 
to his patronymic from a peculiar talent he had of turning 
grounds that had any " capability" to the best advantage — 
demolished the old structure, and raised another, at a cost of 
£100,000. After Lord Clive's decease, Claremont passed 
successively into the possession of Viscount Galway, the Earl 
of Tyrconnel, and Charles Kose Ellis Esq., from whom it was 
purchased by government, in 1816, at a cost of £69,000, to 
form the country residence of Prince Leopold, now King of 
the Belgians. The mansion has latterly become, by one of 
those strange caprices of destiny that beset crowned beads, 
the refuge of Louis Phillippe and the exiled Royal Family of 
France, who have lived here, in comparative seclusion, since 
the memorable revolution of Februarv, 1848. 



WAI.TOX. 69 

Crossing Walton Heath, the course of the line brings ns in 
the vicinity of Oatlands, the seat of the late Duke of York, 
and afterwards of Lord Francis Egerton. App's Court, 
adjacent, was another of Wolsey's residences ; the house he 
inhabited has long since disappeared, but a dove-cote, and the 
wall of his garden, with some trees planted by himself, still 
remain to mark the spot where he loved to meditate over his 
chequered fortunes. Walton is decidedly one of those stations 
where it is worth while to alight and turn towards the village, 
on the speculation of finding a pleasant occupation for a spare 
half-hour. The old church, dedicated to St. Mary, contains 
some attractive monuments of considerable antiquity, and a 
" scold's bridle" is shown, which was used to curb those 
gossips' tongues that, unlike the " course of true love," never 
did " run smooth." In the chancel is a monument to John 
Selwyn, a keeper of Oatlands, who is represented on a stag's 
back, plunging his sword into the animal's throat. This is 
said to have been done in the presence of Queen Elizabeth, as 
he sprang from the back of the horse, which he was riding 
at full speed, on to that of the stag. William Lilly, the 
astrologer, who lived at Hersham, close by, is also interred 
here. The style of architecture of this ancient edifice is 
manifestly belonging to a very remote period. The old bridge 
that spans the Thames was erected in 1687. Here, at a place 
called " Coway," Cassar is said to have attempted crossing the 
river, and some wooden stakes, shod with iron and 16 feet 
long, have been dug up in the neighbourhood, and cited as a 
proof of the successful opposition made by the ancient Britons, 
under Cassivelaunus, to repel the eftbrts of the Romans. 

Weyhridge is another choice spot to alight, fertile in quiet 
nooks for angling, and abounding in picturesque scenery. 
Close to the station is " The Hand and Spear" Tavern, with a 
sort of half-gotliic, half-Swiss style about it, and some exten- 
sive grounds at the back, fitted up with every facility of 
diversion to wile away a summer's afternoon. The village is 
close to it, but presents nothing remarkable, not even except- 



70 BTFLEET. 

ing the chnrch, which, though old, has only a few brasses of 
little interest, and a sculpture, by Chantrey, to the Duchess of 
York, representing the deceased engaged in prayer. There is 
a monument besides to perpetuate her worth, erected on the 
green, in the shape of a column. The Basingstoke Canal and 
the Eiver Wey form their junction at this point with the 
Thames, and, as they heighten the charms of the landscape, 
also present great attractions to the lovers of fishing, who are 
constantly to be seen testing their skill along the margin. 
Those expert at pedestrianizing will have a rare treat if they 
cross the Hne from Weybridge Station and proceed to Byfleet, 
two miles onward. It is a primitive looking village, with an 
old-fashioned church, constructed from the simple materials 
of rough stones and flint. The ^aews are delightful as yon 
proceed, and the country round exhibits the highest state of 
agricultural cultivation. Making direct for St. George's Hill, 
there is a splendid prospect from the summit, encompassing 
"Windsor, Chertsey, Hampton, and the glistening rivers that 
sparkle through the landscape nearer. Relucta'-tly quitting 
tliis elevated region — and it requires a desperate degree of 
resolution — we descend into the village of Cobham, on the 
other side thereof, having a pleasant location on the Mole, 
and an abundant supply from its waters of carp, pike, and 
trout, most plentifully found in that portion of the stream 
which flows through the park. Hence we may stroll to 
Ockham, and have a look at the old church, built in 1290, 
and Ockham Park, the seat of Earl Lovelace, who, himself a 
descendant from the metaphysician Locke, has ftirther honor 
in his marriage with Ada, the daughter of Byron. Still 
onward, and Wisley and Piprford will be found worthy a 
visit, and Woking, with its ancient mansion of Sutton Place, 
built by Sir Richard Weston, in 1530, and oft-times visited 
by Queen Elizabeth. The church is venerable, and the 
embattled tower gives it a striking appearance. Near here, 
on a spot formerly called " Aldeburj'," may be seen the ruins 
of Newark Priory, founded in the time of Richard Coeur de 



CHERTSET. 71 

Lion. The portion that remains was evidently the old 
church. Leaving the excursionist to choose whether he shall 
hence go on to Guildford or Woking — either way about three 
miles— we return to Weybridge, and take our rambler with 
OS on another pleasant pilgrimage of three miles, in the 
opposite direction, to Chertsey. 

Chertsey — the very name rings in the ear like a sound from 
the far-off past — is as old as the days of the ancient Britons, 
and probably was one of their principal places. Soon after 
the conversion of the Saxons from Paganism, in 666, a 
Benedictine Monastery was founded here by Frithwold, a 
petty prince of Surrey, and by him richly endowed. In the 
original charter it is written, " I beseech those whose names 
are annexed to subscribe themselves witnesses that I, Frith- 
wald, who am the giver, together with the Abbot Erkenwald, 
on account of my ignorance of letters, have expressed with the 
sign of the Holy Cross." It is from this pretty evident that 
princes in those days had somewhat of Jack Cade's antipathy 
to those who could "read, write, and cast accompt," and 
therefore they also " made their mark, like a simple, plain- 
dealing, honest man." The Danes, who were the general 
snappers-up of unconsidered trifles, pillaged the abbey in 
1009, killed the abbot and monks, and laid the whole build- 
ing desolate ; but being afterwards rebuilt by Egbert, King of 
Kent, it became more magnificently embellished than ever, 
and was one of the most important monasteries in the 
kingdom. Henry VI. was buried here, under a sumptuous 
mausoleum, but the body was exhumed in 1504, by Henry 
Vn., and conveyed with great pomp first to Windsor, and 
afterwards to Westminster Abbey. It is useless to look now 
for any vestige of its former grandeur; all that remains is a 
part of its wall, forming the boundary of an orchard, and part 
of an archway is still visible on the north side of the town. 
In the centre of the town is the church, rebuilt in 1808, but 
having a portion of the old chancel and tower remaining. 
Even 60 late as the year 1814, and occasionally since, the 



%^ CUEKTSET. 

curfew has been tolled here, from IVIichaelmas to Lady Day, 
the day of the month being indicated during the time of 
ringing. A handsome stone bridge of seven arches was 
erected, in 1786, across the Thames, connecting the county of 
Surrey with Middlesex. At a house in Guildford Street, 
formerly distinguished as the Porch House, lived Abraham 
Cowley, the poet, who has perpetuated, in prose and verse, 
his love for this seclusion in a hundred quaint prettinesses. 
Beneath the window of the room in which he died (July 28th, 
1667) is a tablet thus appealing to the sympathies of the 
passers-by: — "Here the last accents flowed from Cowley's 
tongue." A pretty summer house that he built, and a seat 
under a sycamore tree, both mentioned in his poems, were 
existing till the middle of the last century. After the excur- 
sionist has refreshed his physical energies at one of the many 
excellent inns that here abound, by all means let him ascend 
St Anne's Hill, about a mile out of the town, and he shall 
find himself, at the summit, elevated some 250 feet above the 
ocean level, with a glorious panorama round about him of the 
finest parts of the river between Richmond and Windsor. 
There is a spring at the top, that summer's heat and winter's 
cold alike prove unable to dry up or freeze. The mansion on 
the southern slope of the hill was once the residence of 
Charles James Fox, the statesman, to whom a cenotaph has 
been erected in the church. From Chertsey he can now pro- 
ceed to the Woking Station, an agreeable walk of five miles, 
and so return by railway, or cross the bridge, and go through 
Lakham on to Staines, a distance of four miles : thence one of 
the coaches that still ply on that comparatively deserted 
road win bring him back to town. 

The excursion we have indicated, with judicious manage- 
ment of stoppages, need not occupy more than a day, but 
should the finny fraternity of the streams tempt an angler to 
loiter on his path, it will be found an excellent plan to stop at 
Chertsey for the night, and try his chance among the famous 
jack and perch of Shepperton in the morning. 



EXCURSION ni. 

CAMBERTVEIiIi— PECKHAJr RYE— NUKHEAD CEMETERY— 
DULWICH— DULWICH COLLEGE — PENGE COMMON— SYDEN- 
HAM— ANERLEY—BEULAH SPA— NORWOOD— NORWOOD CEME- 
TERY — STREATHAM — BRIXTON — STOCKWELL— THE STOCK- 
WELL GHOST— CLAPHAM—CLAPHAM COMMON— RETURN BY 
OMNIBUS. 

Our next trip out of town into Surrey, though less extensive, 
will not be found less interesting. Having got a ticket of 
admission to the Dulwich Gallery,* take an omnibus to Cam- 
berwell Green, and be put down at the " Father Redcap," a 
hostel that in the last century stood far away in the fields, 
without a habitation within ken. Cross the Green and turn 
down Grove Lane to the right, a thoroughfare at the back of 
Camberwell Grove, now occupied by a handsome range of 
modem houses, commanding a retrospective view over the 
smoke-enshrouded buildings of the southern suburbs. It was 
here that tradition alleges BarnweU killed his uncle, but the 
crime of the city apprentice, immortalised by Lillo, has not 
even had the assistance of a ghost to indicate the precise spot 
of the murder. At the end of this lane there is a steep 
declivity, where the road winds round to the valley beneath, 
and the prospect that here comes with startling suddenness on 
the eye of the pedestrian is a pleasant surprise after the 
monotonous lines of houses which have hitherto been our 

• These tickets are gratis, and easily obtainable of the chief Printsellers, 
being merely rendered necessary to ensure the respectability of the visitors, 
though it is probable before long tliat even this slight condition will be 
dispensed with. Ackerman, Strand, and Colnaghi, Pall Mall, will both 
supply them. The gallery is open every week day, except Friday, from 
10 till 5 in the summer months, and 11 till 3 during the winter. 



74 PECKHAM. 

boundary right and left. You are in an instant transported, 
as if by magic, from the confines of the town to the open 
country, and though a few cottages have, within the last year 
or two, been built at the foot of the hill, there is yet enough 
rurality about it to make it grateful to the vision of one 
satiated with street scenes and street bustle. The vale of 
Peckham lies in the foreground, with beyond an ample tract 
of pasture ground, veined with hedgerows, and an undulating 
country at the back, wherein ivied cottages and clustering 
elms knot themselves into picturesque groups afar oif. The 
road winding to the left brings us to Goose Green, a favourite 
spot for academies, and a quarter of a mile further is Peckham 
Rye, which at first view appears to consist of a score of Uttle 
shops and stuccoed dwellings, a tavern or two, a large pond, 
and ducks and dogs innumerable. Peckham, though recently 
much enlarged by terraces and other symptoms of metro- 
politan extension, was not long ago as quietly rural as if four 
hundred miles, instead of four, had been its distance from 
town. Here are tea-gardens — so called, of course, because tea 
is never called for within them — that, garnished with flowers 
and seats amid the shrubberies, offer no despicable attractions 
to the city artisan, who can thus within omnibus range 
breathe a fresher atmosphere, and have some wholesome 
notion of real country air. Hardly a mile from the Eye, 
reached by the road exactly opposite to that by which we 
came, is Nunhead Cemetery, occupying the slope of a hill 
which is crowned upon the top by a neat chapel for perform- 
ing the funereal rites of the Established Church. Adjoining is 
a plainer edifice for the use of Dissenters. The grounds are 
well disposed, though they cannot be said to rival the 
cemeteries of Kensal Green and Norwood. From the 
eminence adjoining there is a good prospect of London, and 
the pathway to Forest Hill, and round, under the South- 
Eastern Eailway, to New Cross and Deptford, is not to be 
despised by those whom time will not permit to enjoy a more 
excorsiTe ramble. 



DULWICH. 76 

From Peckham we can strike across the hills, where one of 
the old Semaphores, or wooden telegraphs, still remains — a 
disused link of telegraphic communication between the 
Admiralty and Portsmouth — and get to Dulwich through the 
meadows. Just past the neat village, plentifully besprinkled 
with the villas of metropolitan merchants, is Dulwich College, 
founded, in 1619, by Edward AUeyne, the actor, who, as one 
of Shakspere's contemporaiies, was a popular representative 
of most of the characters in his plays. It is a building of the 
Elizabethan school, and was erected from the designs of 
Inigo Jones. In 1811 a new wing was added for the recep- 
tion of the pictures bequeathed by Sir Francis Bourgeois, and 
these include some of the finest specimens extant of the works 
of the old Flemish and Spanish masters. Those by Cuyp, 
Kembrandt, and Murillo are highly estimated, and there are 
several by our own Sir Joshua Reynolds. An inspection of 
the pictorial treasures herein contained will prove a desirable 
and gratifying hour's occupation. A chapel, library, and 
school, for gratuitous instruction, are attached, and the warden 
must be the same name as the founder, a condition which has 
occasionally involved some perplexity in its fulfilment. The 
environs are replete with pastoral beauty, and an immense 
quantity of hay is obtained from this district. Pursuing the 
road before us, and skirting the borders of some fine planta- 
tions — well known to pic-nic parties from town — we pass 
Penge Common, where the Watermen's Almshouses form a 
conspicuous object in their isolated position. They were 
erected, by subscription, for aged watermen and lightermen, 
in 1840. Nothing can be more charmingly sylvan, or less 
suggestive of the approximate city, than the walk across the 
hill to Sydenham, which reveals a varied and expansive pros- 
pect over Kent as we approach its precincts. The town lies 
in the hollow, and has a number of opulent residents, whose 
elegant mansions contribute to diversify the scene. On the 
common has recently been built a handsome church, and 
along by the railway several stately villas have been called int© 



■f6 JCOEWOOD. 

being by the increased facilities of transit thus afforded, and the 
acknowledged salubrity of the air. The Anerley Gardens, a 
short distance from the station, are prettily disposed, with 
every imaginable device to make a visitor prolong his stay. 
The old Croydon Canal runs at the end of the grounds, and 
is kept well stocked with fish ; there are few resorts more 
calculated than this to afford innocent recreation and healthy 
enjoyment. 

Unless the train is taken from Anerley we may take the 
rambler on with us some two miles to the west across the 
country to Norwood, a famous haunt for gipsies and pleasure 
parties, though the former have become nearly extinct. 
Beidah Spa is well known to summer excui'sionists as a 
delightful destination for a day's jaunt, having archery and 
music to increase the general hilarity, as well as verdant 
lawns and flowery arbours, where the " creature comforts" 
may be most delectably administered. The mineral spring, 
discovered in 1827, may be tasted by those disposed to try its 
beneficial effects ; it has a twang with it like what we should 
fancy an infusion of Congreve matches would produce. The 
scenery round Norwood is as wild and romantic as though 
the sound of a Brixton omnibus never disturbed the tran- 
quillity of the region, and botanists and entomologists can find 
in the woods hereabout some choice specimens for their 
cabinets. Norwood Cemetery, laid out in 1839, at a cost of 
£80,000, occupies a very eligible position, on the sloping 
devation of a hill near the roads leading to Tulse Hill and 
Brixton. It encloses a space of nearly fifty acres, and the 
brick wall which surrounds the Cemetery is above a mile and 
a half in length. Two chapels, one Episcopal and the other for 
Dissenters, are built in the gothic style at the highest point, 
and hence there is a fine prospect before us, reaching from 
the park immediately beneath, which formerly belonged to 
Lord Chancellor Thurlow, to Heme Hill, and the towers of 
Westminster Abbey and St. Paul's. Under the cloisters of 
the chapel are the catacombs, estimated to contain 2,000 



STOCKWELL. 77 

coffins; thej are well ventilated and lighted, and perfectly 
dry. On each side the grounds present a gentle undulation, 
the fresh green turf being intersected by broad gravel walks, 
and relieved at inten'als by darker clumps of shrubs, flowers, 
and trees, among which the tombs and sculptured memorials 
of those who rest beneath rise in gracefiil solemnity around. 
There are many names upon the tablets familiar to fame, 
and the aspect of the place altogether affords a cheerful 
contrast to the gloomy regions appropriated to the same 
purpose in our city burial grounds From here we can cross 
over to Streatliam, a mile westward, and, looking in at the 
church, see the tomb of Mr. Thrale, with Dr. Johnson's 
epitaph. The ancient altar-tomb, known as " John of 
Gaunt's," is of doubtful origin, but certainly not connected 
with the individual whose name it bears. Streatham Spa, 
once of some repute, lies to the east of the village, at a place 
called Streatham Wells. We can hence take an omnibus 
back through Brixton, or extend our walk through Clapham 
New Park into the Clapham Road, The spacious area of 
Clapham Common, comprising 200 acres, is a fine addition 
to the parish, and is much frequented by cricketers. 

Stockwell, to the right of the road from Brixton to Clapham, 
was the scene of the stupid imposition of the Stockwell Ghost, 
who, though not visible himself, endowed kitchen furniture 
with wonderful vitality, made plates leap from th6 shelves, 
and realizing a familiar nursery rhyme, literally caused the 
dish to run away with the spoon. The whole impostur*— 
and a more palpable one is not to be met with in the annals 
of credulity — was the successful experiment of the shrewd 
servant girl in the family where these wonders took place. 
The house thus signalized stood upon the green, but it has 
been much altered and repaired within the last few years. A 
constant relay of omnibuses will be met with in either of the 
main roads, and will afford a very economical conveyance 
either to the city or west end. 

Kennington Common, now being rapidly enclosed with 



78 KENSINGTON. 

buildings, was, before the erection of Horsemonger Lane Gaol, 
the usual place of execution for criminals tried in this part of 
the county. Near it, also, was a palace, occasionally inhabited 
by the Royal Family even as late as the reign of Henry VTL 
Camden says that in his time no traces of the building were 
left, whence it seems probable that directly it ceased to be a 
royal residence it was pulled down. The " Prince's Eoad" is 
said to have been that by which the Black Prince came to 
this palace from Lambeth, and a tavern in the road still bears 
the sign of that renowned son of Edward III. Kennington is 
besides distinguished in histoiy as the scene of the banquet or 
marriage festival of a Danish nobleman, at which Hardicannte, 
the son of Canute the Great, became the victim of his own 
intemperance, or, according to others, was poisoned. In com- 
memoration of his death the festival of " Hocktide" is said to 
have been instituted. Kennington Church, dedicated to St. 
Mark, was erected in 1 824, at an expense of nearly £30,000. 
This neighbourhood is rather different now from what it was 
in the reign of Edward HI., when bands of lawless ruffians 
used to sally forth by hundreds at a time to rob the city, 
and the Lord Mayor and Aldermen had to keep watch for 
nights together, on the opposite banks of the Thames, to 
oppose their incursions. The Surrey side of the water has 
been lately wonderfully improved, both in the style of its 
dwellings, and the character of its inhabitants. It now includes 
by far the best portion of the city " respectables." 



EXCURSION IV. 

RAILWAY TO CROYDON— AKTIQUITIES—BEDDINGTON— 
CARSHALTOK — WOODMANSTERNE — ADDISCOMBE — ADDING- 
TON — EEIGATE — THE CASTLE— THE BARON'S CAVE— THE 
PKIORY— DORKING— LEITH HILL — BOX HILL— MICKLEHAM 
VALE — EPSOM — EWELL — CHEAM — SUTTON — MITCHAM — 
STREATHAM— BRIXTON. 

We now put the railway again into requisition. Go down 
to the Terminus at Iiondon Bridge and take a ticket to 
Croydon by the Croydon Eailway. The scenery along the 
line is full of varied interest, and the excursionist will have a 
good opportunity of seeing some of the richest portions of the 
Bouthern outskirts on his route. Croydon is a fine old town, 
with some attractive vestiges of antiquity about it, and is of 
local importance as the place of election for East Surrey. 
The name is derived from the Saxon derivatives Croie, chalk, 
and dune or don, a bill, which pretty clearly describes its 
geological position. On the left , as we stroll towards the High 
Street, wiU be noticed " Whitgift's Almshouses," endowed by 
Archbishop Whitgift in 1596, for a warden, chaplain, school- 
master, and forty decayed householders of Lambeth and 
Croydon, twenty of each sex. The church, with its ancient 
flint tower and recently renovated interior, is worthy examina- 
tion. It was built on the site of a Koman place of worship, by 
Archbishop Courteney, in the latter part of the 14th century, 
and after many mutations was cruelly ill-used at the time of 
the civil wars, when a man named Blesse was paid by the 
Puritans half-a-crown a day to break the beautifully painted 
windows. When undergoing restoration, in 1844, the work- 
men discovered some ancient paintings of a large size ; they 



80 BEODIHGTOH. 

are in good preservation, but the execution is somewhat 
indifferent Monuments to the Archbishops Sheldon, Whit- 
gift, and others, are to be here seen, exhibiting appropriate 
magnificence of embellishment. The Archbishops of Canter- 
bury had a palace here for many centuries, and a portion of 
it, used as a laundry, still remains. In exploring the country 
round Croydon — and finer scenery is not to be met with fifty 
miles from town — the rambler must consult his own con- 
venience and powers of pedestrianism. We give him a choice 
of routes, right and left of the station, which may serve at 
different times as useful hints for a day's ramble. 

BeddingUm is a capital point for a stroll, being two miles 
and a half from Croydon, and reached through a highly 
picturesque district The village, situated on the banks of the 
Wandle, has a church built of flint, and, though recently 
renovated, has still a portion remaining of the original 
structure, belonging to the time of Richard the Second. A 
glance within will show an ancient Elizabethan pulpit, a 
curious square font supported by four pillars, and several 
tombs of the Carews, one especially being remarkable — a 
monumental brass to Nicholas Carew, dated 1432. Bedding- 
ton Park has been for at least four hundred years the seat of 
the Carew family, the present possessor being Captain Charles 
Carew, of the Royal Navy. In 1.599 and 1600 Queen Elizabeth 
was a frequent guest at their mansion, and her favorite walk 
is still pointed out, with an oak tree she is said to have 
planted. The old building being burned down, in 1709, with 
the exception of the hall, the present mansion stands precisely 
on the site of that erected by Sir Francis Carew, and still 
wears an aspect of ancient grandeur that carries us back to 
the time of square cut coats and flowing ruflSes. Sir Francis 
Carew was the brother-in-law of Sir Walter Raleigh, who 
brought over the pips of some oranges, which were here 
planted, for the first time in England, and thriving exceed- 
ingly, proved the origin of the orangery now attached to th« 
grounds. 



ADDINGTON. 81 

Carshalton is a mile further, and in the very heart of the 
village has a beautiful expanse of water, which, receiving the 
contributions of various springs gushing from the chalky soil, 
is afterwards known as the river Wandle. The trout found 
in this stream are unexceptionable in quality and quantity. 
The church is in the early English style, with some antique 
brass memorials to Nicholas Ganeysford and family. Near 
the churchyard is a spring, over-arched with stone, and called 
" Queen Anne Boleyn's Well," from some vague tradition of 
her having stopped to admire its crj'Stal clearness on her way 
from Hever. The walks from here over Dupper's Hill and 
Banstead Downs are delightful, yielding prospects of great 
extent and infinite beauty. Home Tooke lived for many 
years at Purley House, not far distant, and there wrote his 
celebrated grammarian treatise, called " The Diversions of 
Purley." At Woodmansterne, six miles from Croydon, there 
is an old tree, said — but we think erroneously — to mark the 
highest point in the county. It is certain, however, that the 
ground about here is level with the cross of St. Paul's. 

On the left, or eastern, side of Croydon there are equally 
attractive spots with those we have just noticed. Passing 
through Addiscombe, where is situated the Military College of 
the East India Company, in which about 150 cadets are 
educated, we may make our way round to Addington, nearly 
four miles from Croydon. Here is an antique church of the 
time of Edward IH. in some portions, but rebuilt, about 1777, 
after a combination of orders that may be called, for want of 
a better, the early Churchwarden style. The chief feature, 
however, of the place is Addington Park, the seat of the 
Archbishop of Canterbury, and formerly a hunting lodge of 
Henry VIII. The mansion, built at the cost of £40,000, 
coDttmands some extensive views, and the grounds are 
spacious and well planted. The vicinity is rich in pleasant 
strolls, and green lanes and breezy footpaths abound. There 
are several Saxon barrows, too, upon the hills, well worth 
inspection, one presenting no less than 25 tumuli clustered 

G 



82 BEIGATE. 

together, and a high mound, the burial place of a great 
unknown, 37 feet in diameter. A circular encampment of two 
acres, environed by a double moat, may still be seen on 
Thunderfield Common. A delightful day may be spent in 
rambhng about here, taking a train from the Brighton 
Station of the Croydon Railway back, for the sake of 
shortening the return distance. 

Pursuing our route, by railway, for those inclined to get 
still further out, we pass through the Merstham Tunnel — 180 
feet beneath the surface, and a mile in length — and stop at the 
Keigate Station, from which Eeigate is about a mile and a 
half distant. Or the pedestrian can alight at Merstham, and 
enjoy a two miles walk through Gatton Park. There are 
omnibuses generally to meet the trains. The t^n of Reigate 
is on a bed of various sands, chiefly white, highly estimated 
for the plate glass manufacture. Of its once famous castle, 
held by the De Warrena family, no remains exist, but a 
cavern under the castle mount, called " The Baron's Cave" — 
from a supposition that here the barons fii-st drew up an 
outline of Magna Charta — is evidently a subterraneous portion 
of the old fortress. It descends about 200 feet into a vault 
150 feet long and nearly twelve feet high. Whether a natural 
chasm or an artificial excavation has not been very clearly 
ascertained, but it was most probably the latter. A small fee 
is i-equired for showing it by the Cicerone of the spot. The 
castle was taken, in 1216, by the Bai'ons, aided by the Dauphin 
Louis of France, and was demolished soon after. At the east 
end of the town is the church, with little exteriorly remarkable 
beyond what it gains from its situation. Some monuments 
within are, however, worth looking at. In the chancel is 
interred Lord Howard Earl of Effingham, who, as High 
Admiral of the English Fleet, so materially assisted in routing 
the Spanish Armada; the date is 1588. A monument to the 
Ladbroke family, and one to Sir Thomas Bludder and his 
wife, who died in 1618, present some singular sculptures of 
full length figures. Over the vestry is a rather rare thougli 



DORKING. 83 

very sei'viceable addition to a parochial church, in the shape 
of a library, instituted, in 1518, by Jolm Skynner; it chiefly 
comprises works of divinity. About lialf a mile to the south 
of the town is the " Priory," a modem structure, the seat of 
Earl Somers, occupying the site of the ancient monastic 
establishment founded, in 1240, by William de Warrena. 
Ascending the hill there is a fine panoramic view over the 
adjacent country, which well repays the excursionist for going 
a little out of his way to enjoy this expansive survey of the 
Weald and Downs of Sussex and Surrey. Before leaving the 
town there is the old Market House, with the ToAvn Hall 
above it, which must claim a passing notice, as marking the 
site of one of the many way-side chapels dedicated to Saint 
Thomas a Becket, The pilgrims' road to Canterbury led round 
by the chalk hills near Merstham, and it was doubtless by tliis 
route that Chaucer's immortal company passed onward to the 
shrine. 

From Reigate to Dorking there is a walk, ride, or drive of 
six miles, which is certain to gratify the tastes of all lovers of 
fine scenery. A coach passes along from Reigate to Guildford 
every afternoon, and for a small fare will give the pedestrian 
an opportunity of saving his locomotive powers for a stroll 
round the tOAvn and over the surrounding hills. Just before 
entering Dorking he will have his attention attracted by 
Deepdene, the seat of H. T. Hope Esq., the gi-ounds belonging 
to which have been lately considerably extended by the 
purchase of Betchworth Castle and Chai-t Park. There are 
numerous ■^'illas scattered about the neighbom-hood, most of 
them in the prettiest situations imaginable. Dorking is famous 
for its peculiar breed of fowls, thought to have been originally 
inti'oduced by the Romans, and is one of the most lively and 
diarmingly environed places in all Surrey. Occupying a 
portion of the Valley of the Mole, on the south side of the 
North Downs, it has a range of hills within its precincts that 
make perfect cosmoi'amas of the surrounding villages, each 
step higher on the slope of the Downs giving a change in the 
g2 



84 UIITH HILL. 

prospect "We would especially recommend those who can 
spare the time to sleep at one of the Dorking inns — there are 
several both good and reasonable — and set off, early next 
morning, to Leith Hill, four miles to the south. The view 
from the summit, nearly a thousand feet above the level of the 
sea, will astonish those who fancy there can be nothing worth 
looking at in this way south of Snowdon. If the trip can be 
made of a fine summer or autimmal morning, rising at dawn 
and getting up the hill time enough to see the mist dispersed 
by the growing sunlight, the pleasure is considerably enhanced. 
There is a little inn, half way up, where a breakfast after a 
simple but clean and comely fashion can be obtained, and we 
hold this by no means of minor importance, after an experience 
of the fearful appetites we have seen created on the way. The 
hill is crowned by a small structure, traditionally said to mark 
the spot where an eccentric farmer of the neighbourhood was 
buried on horseback upside down, so that when the world was 
tamed — as he believed it then soon would be — topsy-tuny, 
he might come up at last in a right position. A day on Leith 
Hill is a capital substitute for a trip to Switzerland, and its 
beauties are — to their shame be it spoken — not half so well 
known to Londoners as they deserve. It is the very haunt for 
secluded meditation, with nothing to be heard but the dozy 
chirruping of insects among the grass, and the distant song 
of the soaring skylark far beneath. Box Hill, where the Mole 
disappears and again oozes through the porous soil at 
Leatherhead, the Vale of Mickleham, with Norbury Park, 
Walton-on-the-Hill, and the country round Leatherhead, are 
all so many delightiul spots that can be made to yield the 
greatest enjoyment, with no other conditions than a moderately 
filled purse and fine weather. 

Leatherhead is five miles from Dorking, on the banks of the 
Mole, that has now gained importance enough to be crossed 
by a bridge, and, though a small town, has some very sub- 
stantial dwellings, with a venerable church of the 13th century 
rising firom an eminence at the east end. Ashstead, midway 



EPSOM. 89 

between Leatherbead and Epsom, has a fine park, the seat 
of the Hon. Col. Fulke Greville Howard, and is plentifully 
provided with deer. 

Epsom, two miles further, enjoys a world-wide celebrity 
for two very different things — its Race-course and its Salts. 
WhUst the former, however, still flourishes in unabated attrac- 
tion, the latter has been long superseded by an artificial pre- 
paration of the same nature and bearing the same name. In 
the 17th century this was the fashionable Spa of England, 
and the newspapers of the time advertised *' that the post will 
go every day to and fro, between London and Epsom, during 
the season for drinking the waters." In the time of Chai'les I. 
these salts were so celebrated that they were sold at 5s. the 
ounce, and from 1690 to 1720 the wells were in their zenith 
of prosperity. As chemical science improved, cheaper and 
more abundant sources were discovered, and even sea water 
was found to yield it by evaporation. It is simply a sulphate 
of magnesia, and is generally prepared for commerce by 
subjecting magnesian limestone to the action of muriatic and 
sulphuric acid. The old bath room was pulled down in 1804. 
The race-course, on the Downs south-east of the town, with its 
noble " Grand Stand," and the annual attractions of the 
"Derby" day, form a combination of attractive features too 
familiar to need more than a brief mention. Epsom Races — 
the most truly national festival of which we can boast — have 
been held annually on the same spot since 1730; the two 
great races, " The Derby" and " The Oaks," deriving their 
names, one from the title of the nobleman by whom it was 
instituted, and the other from the fine seat of the Earl of 
Derby, near Sutton, called " The Oaks." 

Ewell is one mile from Epsom, and was, in the time of 
Henry VIIL, famous for its magnificent Palace of Nonsuch, 
which, for costly splendour of decoration, was said to have 
been without a rival in Europe. It was demolished, by a 
caprice of the Duchess of Cleveland, in 1670, and now not a 
vestige of its former grandeur remains. Unless a return trip 



86 BdTCHAH. 

on the recent extension of the Croydon Railway is preferred, 
we can proceed back to London by way of Chcam, Sutton, 
and Mitcham, whence a great portion of the medicinal plants 
•old by the herbalists and apothecaries is derived. The air of 
this region is heavy with the exhaled fragrance of peppermint 
and lavender; and fields of chamomiles, poppies, rhubarb, 
wormwood, and aniseed, meet the eye in every direction. We 
can go from Mitcham either through Tooting and Clapham, 
or through Streatham and Brixton, back over the bridges to 
London. Or, should inclination and convenience render it 
desirable, we can suggest, as another agreeable road, the walk 
of four miles, from Ewell to the Kingston Station, over 
Kingston Common, and so return by the South- Western 
Railway. 



EXCURSION V. 

LONDON TO GUILDFORD BY THE SOUTH-WESTERN 
1!AIL\VAY— GUILDFORD CASTLE— SAINT CATHERINE'S HILL— 
THE " HOG'S BACK"— SUTTOX PLACE— LOSELY HALL— FARN- 
HAM— FARNHAM CASTLE— WAVERLY ABBEY— FARNBOROUGH 
STATION. 

In one hour and a half after leaving Nine Elms the quick 
trains of the South- Western Raihvay will set a passenger 
down at Guildford, which, though so full of objects to render 
a day's jaunt delightfully interesting, was little visited by 
excursionists from town imtil the extension of the line from 
Woking made the distance fall within the compass of an 
afternoon's journey. Seated on the slope of a chalk hill rising 
from the river Wey, the aspect of the town, on our first 
entrance, is singularly striking and picturesque ; the streets, 
too, have a cheerful bustle about them, and the salubrity of 
the air is well attested by the broad ruddy featxires of the 
farmers that we encounter about the market-place. The 
visitor, after the discussion of that refreshment which his 
railway ride will have rendered requisite, vdll of course go 
down the High Street, wherein he shall see, on the north side, 
a venerable building cro^vTied with a turret, and having a 
clock projecting into the street, with a double dial east and 
west. This is the Town Hall, a building about 170 years old, 
and the place of meeting for the to^vn and county quarter 
sessions. Opposite is the Com Market. The three parish 
churches, St. Nicholas, on the west, Trinity, in the east, and 
St. Mary's, on the south, are of various degrees of architectural 
merit; Trinity Church being the most modem, and St, Mary's 
the most antique. The remains of Guildford Castle, built 
about the time of the Norman Conquest, are scattered down 



88 FABNHAM. 

the south side of the High Street, where some of the outer 
walls, of amazing strength and thickness, may yet be seen to 
attest the solidity and magnitude of this formidable fortress. Its 
position, commanding the river Wey, was well calculated for 
the defence of the town. Many portions of the walls, endur- 
ingly built of flint and ragstone, are 10 feet thick. Abbot's 
Hospital, founded in the reign of James I., by George Abbot, 
Archbishop of Canterbury, is an interesting relic of well- 
directed munificence. There are twelve aged men and eight 
aged women admitted to the benefits of this institution, which 
had an endowment on a very liberal scale. The environs of 
Guildford have many attractions, not among the least of 
which is St. Catherine's Hill, about a mile from the town, 
which, with a continuation of the ramble acrosss the hilly 
range called the " Hog's back," will be found to yield most 
delightful views. Sutton Place, built by Sir Richard Western 
in 1530, and Losely Hall, reputed to have originated from Sir 
Thomas More, are both within two miles of the town. 

From Guildford there is a magnificent drive, of about ten 
miles, on to Famham, across the hills and through two 
picturesque little villages, called Puttenham and Scale. To 
the left of Scale and " the Hog's Back" is Hampton Ixxlge, 
embosomed among the trees, the elegant mansion of Henry 
Lawes Long Esq., author of several antiquarian works of 
celebrity. Hops and antiquities both invest Famham with 
considerable importance, and render its name familiar alike to 
ale-drinkers and antiquarians. The ruins of Famham Castle, 
which may be seen on a hill to the north of the town, are in 
very good preservation. The founder was Bishop Henry De 
Blois, brother to that "worthy peer" King Stephen, and 
though it is certain, in our days of ci^-ilization, a church would 
be deemed more befitting the outlay of a bishop than a castle, 
the design was then spoken of as a sound proof of ecclesiastical 
prudence. It was garrisoned for Charles L by Sir John 
Denham, but Waller, who commanded the Roundheads, 
necessitated a retreat, and blew up the fortress in 1642. After 



FABNHAM. 69 

the restoration it was rebuilt, and the Bishop's palace within 
restored to its former splendour. The ascent to the keep, 
which was once flanked by two massive towers, is very 
impressive, and, passing through the doorway, the visitor 
reaches a long avenue, terminated by another doorway, and 
thence can look into the open area of the ancient " donjon." 
Saxon columns and pointed arches are visible, both on the 
east and south side of the great court, and the deep ditch 
sun-ounding the outworks is devoted to the more peaceful art 
of cookery, as a kitchen garden. The present Bishop of 
Winchester has made some slight alterations and additions to 
the structure, erecting a spacious library, and embellishing it 
with some valuable pictures, shown occasionally to visitors 
properly recommended. Adjoining the castle is the " Little" 
Park, comprising about 300 acres, and having a pleasant 
promenade, formed by an elm grove, wliich extends across 
the park for nearly a mile. At an inn called the "Jolly 
Farmer," in Abbey Street, was bom William Cobbett, who 
has repeatedly testified in his works the interest with wliich 
he viewed the place of his nativity. About a mile and a half 
from the town, through Moor Park, will be found the 
exquisitely beautiful ruins of " Waverly Abbey," the property 
of — Nicholson Esq., and the curious cavern, known in the 
vernacular, as " Mother Ludlam's." This is a rare region for 
an artist to find materials for his sketch-book, and there is for 
others, icthyologically disposed, some respectable fishing in 
the Blackwater. 

It was at Moor Park that Sir William Temple, a well- 
known statesman and miscellaneous writer, passed the evening 
of his busy life, having the renowned Jonathan Swift, then a 
young man, residing with him as his amanuensis. Here it was 
that Swift engaged in a " love affair" with Miss Hester John- 
son, a daughter of the steward of Sir William Temple, and 
the same lady whom he has immortalised under the name of 
Stella. When Swift returned to Ireland, Miss Johnson, 
accompanied by another female of maturer age, went to 



90 SELBOBME. 

reside in his neighbourhood, and the unhappy issue of this 
attachment is well known. Stella, though ultimately united 
to Swift by a private marriage in the garden of the Deanery, 
never enjoyed any public recognition of the tie, and she soon 
after died worn out with wasted hope and blighted anticipa- 
tions. Ten miles from Famham is the picturesque village of 
Selbome, the birthplace of the Rev. Gilbert White, who has, in 
his " Natural History " of this spot, graphically described the 
peculiarities of the country round : — " The soils of this district," 
he says, " are almost as varied as the views and aspects. The 
high part to the south-west consists of a vast hill of chalk, 
rising 300 feet above the village, and divided into a sheep 
down, the high wood, and a long hanging wood called the 
Hanger. The covert of this eminence is principally beech, 
the most lovely of all forest trees, whether we consider its 
smooth rind or bark, its glossy foliage, or graceful pendulous 
boughs." The prospect is vast and extensive, being bounded 
by the Guildford range of the Sussex Downs, and the Downs 
round Dorking and Reigate, which altogether, with the 
country round Alton and Famham, form a noble and expan- 
sive outline. The pedestrian, therefore, who has time to spare, 
may well be tempted to extend his excursion on to Selbome. 

Famborough Station is only six miles from Farnlmm, and 
here the excursionist can come over in the afternoon or 
evening by a reasonable conveyance, deposit himself in one of 
the South-Western trains, and be back in another two hours 
amid the streets and shops of London. 



EXCURSION I. 

LONDON TO GREENWICH— BILLIKGSGATE-THE CUS- 
TOM HOUSE— THE TOWER— SAINT KATHERINE'S DOCKS— 
LOKDON DOCKS— WAPPING—ROTHERHITHE— THE TUNNEL- 
WEST INDIA DOCKS— DEPTFORD—GREEN'WICH— THE HOS- 
PITAL—THE PAINTED HALL— THE ROYAL OBSERVATORY— 
THE P.\RK—BLACKHEATH— LEE— SHOOTER'S HILL— ELTHAM 
— ELTHAJI PALACE— WOOLWICH— THE ARTILLERY BARRACKS 
—THE ROYAL ARSENAL— THE " REPOSITORY" AND " ROTLTsDA" 
—THE "MILITARY COLLEGE"— THE DOCKYARD— ARRANGE- 
MENTS OF ADMISSION— RETURN TO TOWN. 

Thrbe are no less than four modes of getting to Greenwich, 
each of them to be severally commended as speedy, agreeable, 
and economical. They are: — 1. By omnibus from Charing 
Cross down the New Kent Road. 2. By Greenwich Rail- 
way from the south side of London Bridge. 3. By Blackwall 
Railway from Fenchurch Street to Blackwall, crossing the 
river by a steamer; and 4, by Steamboats from Westminster, 
Waterloo, Blackfriars, and London Bridges, from which two 
companies keep up a constant succession of departures every 
twenty minutes throughout the day. For the sake of variety 
we shall proceed to describe the journey by water, which, of a 
fine day, is not only the most agreeable, but, as ftimishing an 
excellent opportunity of seeing the scenery of the Thames, is 
perhaps most desirable to strangers. 

Leaving London Bridge, a perfect forest of masts, belong- 
ing to ships of all sizes and all nations, looms out in the 
Pool. Billingsgate, situated chiefly at the back of that cluster 
of buildings by the Custom House, has been since the days of 
William III. the most famous fish-market in Europe. The 
Custom Hovse, likewise on our left, was begun in 1813, and 
finished four years afterwards, at a cost of nearly half-a- 



94 EOTHERHITHK. 

million. It contains nearly 200 distinct apartments, each 
having a range of communication with the Long Room, which 
is 197 feet long, and 50 feet high. One hundred clerks are 
engaged about this room alone, and the principal business of 
'' clearing" is here conducted. We next see the Tower, said to 
have been built by Julius Csesar, and afterwards reconstructed 
by William the Conqueror. The last state prisoners here were 
Thistlewood and his associates, in 1820, for the Cato Street 
conspiracy. The public have free access from ten till four: one 
shilling being charged to \ievr the regalia. About half-a-mile 
lower down are the warehouses of Saint Katlierine's Docks, 
whicli cost one million in construction, and were first opened 
in 1828. The London Docks, close by, opened in 1805, occupy 
a space of about 30 acres. Wapping is a well-known resort 
for sailors and those connected with maritime pursuits. At 
Execution Dock pirates were formerly hung in chains. Rother- 
hithe, opposite, is, in its river frontage, only distinguished by a 
mass of warehouses, and the glimpse we get of the old parish 
church, where Prince Lee Boo was buried. The Tunnel, over 
which we next pass, was first commenced, to afford a subaqeous 
communication between the two sides of the river, in 1825, 
and was completed, after much difiiculty and expense, in 
twenty years. Sir I. Brunei was the projector and engineer. 
The height is nearly 25 feet, and the length 1,300 feet. One 
penny toll is charged for each passenger. Entering the Lower 
Pool we pass Limehouse, where the Regent's Canal communi- 
cates with the Thames, and have next to notice the West India 
Docks, opened in 1802, after an expenditure of £1,200,000, 
and extending over an area of 204 acres. On the opposite 
side of the river are the Commercial Docks, after which is 
passed Earl's Sluice, forming the boundary between Surrey 
and Kent. Deptford, where the dockyard and its bustling 
animation gives a lively appearance to the shore, reminds one 
of Peter the Great, who, in 1698, came to Sayes Court and 
studied the cnift of ship- building at the once picturesque 
retreat of Evelyn, the auto-biographist and author of '" Sylva." 



GREENWICH. 95 

But, alas for the f^lories of Sayes Court — its glittering hollies, 
long avenues, and trim hedges! That portion of the victualling 
yard where oxen arc slaughtered and hogs salted for the use 
of the navy occupies the enchanting grounds wherein Evelyn 
was wont to delight, and on the site of the mansion itself is 
the common workhouse of the parish. Approaching Green- 
wich Reach, where large quantities of white bait are caught 
in the season, the opening of the river discloses a pretty view 
of a distant country beyond, and, with a few more revolutions 
of the paddle wheel, we are brought to our destination, 

Greenwich presents a striking appearance from the river, its 
Hospital forming one of the most prominent attractions of the 
place. Here was the palace erected by Humphrey Duke of 
Gloucester, and by him called Placentia, and here were bom 
Henry VHI. and his two daughters, Queens Mary and 
Elizabeth. Charles 11. began the present magnificent edifice, 
and William III. appropriated it to its present patriotic 
purpose, since which time successive sovereigns have con- 
tributed to enrich it with various additions. As the first 
generally seen we shall begin our description with an account 
of its interior. The Chapel and Picture Gallery are open 
gi'atis on Mondays and Fridays; on other days threepence 
each is charged for admission. It is as well to remind the 
reader that the Hospital consists of four distinct piles of 
building, distinguished by the appellations of King Charles's, 
King "William's, Queen Mary's, and Queen Anne's. King 
Charles's and Queen Anne's are those next the river, and 
between them is the grand square, 270 feet wide, and the 
terrace by the river front, 865 feet in length. Beyond the 
square are seen the Hall and Chapel with their noble domes, 
and the two colonnades, which are backed by the eminence 
whereon the Observatory stands throned amid a grove of 
trees. In the centre of the great square is Rysbrach's statue of 
George II., carved out of white mai'ble, from a block taken 
from the French by Sir George Rooke, and which weighed 
eleven tons. On the west side is King Charles's building, 



96 GREENWICH. 

erected chiefly of Portland stone in the year 1684. The whole 
contains about 300 beds, distributed in 13 wards. Queen 
Anne's building, on the east side of the square, corresponding 
with that on the opposite side, was began in 1693 and 
completed in 1726. There are here 24 wards with 437 beds, 
and several of the officers' apartments. To the south-west is 
King William's building, comprising the great hall, vestibule, 
and dome, erected, between 1698 and 1703, by Sir Christopher 
Wren. It contains 1 1 wards and 554 beds. Queen Mary's 
building was, with the chapel, not completed till 1752, It 
contains 13 wards and 1,100 beds. The Painted Hall, a noble 
structure opposite the chapel, is divided into three rooms, 
exhibiting as you enter statues of Nelson and Duncan, with 28 
pictures of various sizes; the chief are Turner's large picture 
of " The Battle of Trafalgar," the " Relief of Gibraltar," and 
the " Defeat of the French Fleet under Compte de Grasse." 
On the opposite side is Loutherbourg's picture of Lord 
Howe's victory on the memorable 1st of June, 1794, whilst 
above are suspended the flags taken in the battle. The other 
pictures up the steps are chronologically arranged, the most 
prominent being " The Death of Captain Cook," the " Battle 
of Camperdown," " Nelson leaping into the San Josef," and 
" The Bombardment of Algiers." It may not be generally 
known that every mariner, either in the Royal Navy or 
merchant service, pays sixpence a month towards the support 
of this noble institution, which has, of course, besides a 
handsome revenue (£130,000) derived from other sources. 
The pensioners, who are of every rank from the admiral to 
the humblest sailor, are qualified for admission by being either 
maimed or disabled by age. Foreigners who have served two 
consecutive years in the British service are equally entitled to 
the privileges, and the widows of seamen are exclusively 
appointed nurses. The Hospital was first opened in January, 
1705, and now the pensioners pro%'ided with food, clothes, 
lodging, and a small stipend for pocket-money, number nearly 
2,500. The number of out-pensioners is about 3,000. The 



GREENWICH. 97 

"Royal Naval School," for training the sons of seamen to the 
naval service, is a most interesting institution, administering 
the best instruction to now about 450 boys. 

The "Royal Observatory," occupying the most elevated 
spot in Greenwich Park, was built on the site of the old castle, 
the foundation stone being laid on the 10th of August, 1675. 
The first superintendent of the establishment was Flamstead, 
and he commenced his observations in the following year. It 
stands about 300 feet above the level of the river, for the 
shipping in which the round globe at its summit drops 
precisely at noon, to give the exact Greenwich time. The 
noble park is chiefly planted with elms and chesnut trees, and 
contains 188 acres. It was walled round with brick in the 
reign of James I. The views fi'om the summit are very fine, 
embracing perhaps the finest prospect of London and the 
Thames, the forests of Hainault and Epping, the heights of 
Hampstead, and a survey of Kent, Surrey, and Essex, as far 
as the eye can reach. The flitting of the fawns through the 
distant glades, the venerable aspect of the trees themselves — 
many of them saplings in the time of Elizabeth — and the 
appearance of the veteran pensioners, some without a leg or 
arm, others hobbling on from the infirmity of wounds or age, 
and all clad in the old-fashioned blue coats and breeches, with 
cocked hats, give beauty and animation to a scene which no 
other countiy in the world can boast. 

A small doorway in the south-western extremity of the 
park brings us out with a sudden contrast on to Blachheath, 
where Wat Tyler assembled the Kentish rebels in the reign of 
Richard II., and where Jack Cade and his fellow insurgents 
are said to have held their midnight meetings in a cavern 
which still remains, though so choked up as to be considered 
nearly inaccessible. Lee is about a mile distant, crossing the 
Heath towards the south. In the old church was buried 
Halley the astronomer. On the east ofBlackheath is"Morden 
College," founded in 1695, for decayed merchants, and now 
having about forty recipients of its benefits. Following the 



98 shooter's hux. 

old Dover-road, which crossing the Heath leads on to 
Shooter's Hill, we pass a rustic little hostelry, on our left, 
distinguished by the peculiar title of ^he " Sun-in-the-Sands." 
Hazlitt, Hunt, and others of our essayists, were often wont to 
ramble over here ; there is the advantage of an open balcony, 
from which a pleasant view may be obtained of the surround- 
ing country. It is recorded by old Hall, the historian, that 
King Henry VHI. often rode " a-maying from Greenwich to 
the high ground of Shooter's Hill with Queen Katherine his 
wife, and many lords and ladies in gay attire." Several jousts 
and tourneys took place here in the same reign, at one of 
which the King himself, accompanied by the Duke of Suffolk, 
the Earl of Essex, and Sir George Carew, challenged all 
comers to tilt at the barriers. This was on the 20th of May in 
the 8th year of King Harry's reign: he got too crass and 
corpulent for such athletic pastimes afterwards. Shooter's 
Hill — anciently Suiter's hill, from the number of applicants, 
doubtless, that came this way to procure places about the 
court — is 446 feet high, and commands an expansive prospect. 
The "mighty mass of brick and smoke and shipping," as 
Byron calls the view of London from this point, is well con- 
trasted with the foliage of the wooded country extending 
towards the south beyond the vale of Eltham. On the summit 
rises the commemorative castle of Sevemdroog, built, in 1784, 
by Sir William James, to celebrate the conquest of one so 
called on the coast of Malabar. 

For those who either have seen Woolwich or who prefer 
postponing their visit thither for a distinct excursion, we can 
especially recommend a deviation from Shooter's Hill down 
the inviting green lane at its base that leads to Eltham, a 
pleasant walk of hardly two miles. Here stood anciently one 
of the most magnificent of England's royal palaces. Anthony 
Bee, the " battling Bishop " of Durham, erected the first man- 
sion, about the middle of the 13th century, and on his death 
the jnanor with its possessions fell to the Crown, which is still 
the rightful owner of the property. John, son of Edward H., 



ELTHAM. 99 

was bora here, in 1315, and was thence called John of 
Eltham. In the next reign the Parliament was here con- 
vened, and Edward IV., after rebuilding it, kept his Christ- 
mas here with great sjilendour in 1482. Henry VII. made still 
further additions, and in his time the Royal Palace consisted 
of four quadrangles enclosed within a high wall and encircled 
by a moat. A garden and three parks were attached, 
comprising about 1,800 acres, and were well stocked with 
deer. The many fine old trees that still remain show how 
richly wooded this district must have formerly been. AU 
that now remains of this once stately edifice is the Hall or 
Banquetting Room, which has been for years converted to the 
plebeian uses of a barn. Nothing can be more interesting than 
this relic of ancient kingly grandeur. The symbol of the rose, 
seen on various portions of the building, identifies the Hall as 
that erected by Edward IV. In 1828 its neglected condition 
attracted the attention of antiquarians, and government under- 
took the work of restoration, to secure the permanence of what 
remained. The Hall is about 100 feet long, and 60 feet high, 
and it has been well said " the taste and talent of ages are 
concentrated in its design." The windows have been built up, 
but the splendid roof is nearly perfect. From the immense 
length of the beams, sound and straight throughout, it has 
been considered that a forest must have yielded its choicest 
timber for the supply, and it is evident the material has been 
wrought with amazing labour and admirable skill. Some of 
the walls of the old garden are perceptible, to the east of the 
palace, and there is an ancient dwelling close by worth notice. 
In 1834 some curious subterraneous passages were discovered. 
Under the ground-floor was found a trap-door opening into a 
room underground, ten feet wide, and communicating with 
Middle Park, where there were excavations sufficient to 
contain sixty horses. About 500 feet of this passage was 
entered, and 200 feet of another, which passed under the 
moat, and was believed, from traditions extant, to lead under 
Blackheath to Greenwich or the river. In the field leading 
h2 



1^00 woorwiCH. 

from Eltham to Mottingham the archway was broken into, 
but the brickwork could be traced considerably further in the 
same direction. After leaving the Hall go and see Eltham 
Church; not that it is aixhitecturally remarkable, but in the 
churchyard will be found a tomb to Doggett, the comedian, 
who bequeathed the coat and badge still rowed for every 1st 
of August by the "jolly young watermen" of the Thames. 
Hence we can get back to Greenwich, and go home by 
railway. 

Woolwich can be reached either by water, or, as forming a 
continuation of our present stroll down the road, we can turn 
off by the sixth mile-stone and go through Charlton, or take 
the road to the left at Shooter's Hill, Of course nearly 
all the interest connected with AYoolwich is concentrated in 
the government establishments, which are acknowledged to 
be the finest in the world. These, consisting of the Dockyard, 
Arsenal, and Royal Military Repository, we shall describe in 
the rotation generally adopted when seeing them. Coming 
firom Shooter's Hill and crossing Woolwich Common, the 
extensive range of buildings forming the barracks of the 
Royal Artillery first attracts attention. The principal front 
extends above 1,200 feet. In the eastern wing is the chapel, 
containing 1,000 sittings, and the other principal parts of the 
building are the library and reading-room, plentifully supplied 
with newspapers and periodicals. The whole establishment 
affords excellent accommodation for upwards of 4,000 men. 
The troops, when on parade, present a very animated appear- 
ance. The "Royal Arsenal" will be observed but a short 
distance off, composed of several buildings, wherein the manu- 
facture of implements of warfare is carried on upon the most 
extensive scale. On entering the gateway the visitor will see 
the "Foundry" before him, provided with everything neces- 
sary for casting the largest pieces of ordnance, for which, as 
in the other branches of manufacture, steam power has been 
lately applied. Connected with the " Pattern Room," adjoin- 
ing, will be noticed several of the illuminations and devices 



WOOLWICH. 101 

used in St. James's Park to commemorate the peace of 1814. 
The "Laboratory" exhibits a busy scene, for here are made 
the cartridges, rockets, fireworks, and the other chemical 
contrivances for warfare, which, though full of " sound and 
fury," are far from being considered amongst the enemy as 
" signifying nothing." To the north are the storehouses, wliere 
are comprised outfittings for 15,000 cavalry horses, and 
accoutrements for service. The area of the Arsenal includes 
no less than 24,000 pieces of ordnance, and 3,000,000 of 
cannon balls piled up in huge pyramids. Tlie "Repository" 
and "Rotunda" are on the margin of the Common, to the 
south of the town, and contain models of the most celebrated 
fortifications in Europe, with curiosities innumerable. To the 
south-east of the Repository is the " Royal Military Academy," 
for the education of the cadets in all the branches of artilleiy 
and engineering. The present building, partly in the Eliza- 
bethan style, was erected in 1805, and though 300 could be 
accommodated, the number of cadets at present does not 
exceed 160. In going from the Arsenal to the Garrison there 
will be noticed, on the right of the road, an extensive building 
forming the head-quarters of the Royal Sappers and Miners. 
On the same side the way is the "Field Artillery Depot," 
where the guns are mounted and kept in readiness for instant 
action. The Hospital is to the left of the Garrison entrance, 
fitted up with 700 beds, and under the superintendance of the 
most skilful medical officers. Erom the Arsenal we proceed to 
the Dockyard, which, commencing at the village of New 
Charlton on the west, extends a mile along the banks of the 
river to the east'. There are two large dry docks for the 
repair of vessels, and a spacious basin for receiving vessels of 
the largest size. The granite docks, and the Foundry and 
Boiler-maker department, recently added, have been great 
improvements. Timber sheds, mast-houses, storehouses, and 
ranges of massive anchors, give a very busy aspect to the 
place, which was first formed in the reign of Henry VIH., 
and considerably enlarged by Charles I. The new " Royal 



102 WOOLWICH. 



Marine Barracks," designed by Mr. Crew, and just finished 
cost £100,000. An excellent feature is the kitchen, appro- 
priated to every 40 men, so that the meals may be taken 
apart from the bedroom. There is also a school attached for 
200 boys and girls. The following form the arrangements of 
admission to the above important buildings : — to the Arsenal, 
the Koyal Repository, and the Dockyard, free ; the hours 
being from 9 till 11 a,m., and 1 till 4 p.m. Visitors are 
required to leave their names at the gates. The other 
buildings require the escort of one of the principal officers. 

Though within the last four years nearly 2,000 additional 
houses have been built, the town presents few inducements for 
a prolonged visit, and has no feature of interest in itself 
whatever. The old church looks better at a distance than 
close, and there are few monuments in the churchyard bearing 
names familiar to the eye and ear. Perhaps, after his visit to 
the Arsenal, the visitor will feel most interested in that to 
Schalch, a Swiss, who died in 1776, at the advanced age of 
ninety years, sixty of which he passed as superintendent of 
the Foundry there. Indeed it was to him chiefly that the 
establishment owed its origin, for he was the cause of its 
removal from Moorfields, and the improvements made in 
conducting the operations. 

From Woolwich we have the choice of three speedy modes 
of transit to town: — 1. By steamer direct to London Bridge 
and "Westminster. 2. By steam ferry across to Blackwall, and 
so on by railway to Fenchurch Street ; and 3, by a similar 
conveyance to the new station of the Eastern Counties Rml- 
way, on the Essex banks of the river, which brings us to 
Shoreditch. The excursionist may consult his own con- 
venience for preference of choice. 



1 

3d, m 



EXCURSION n. 

LONDON BRIDGE TO GRAVESEND — ERITH-PUR- 

FLEET — DAKTFORD— GREENHITHE— KORTHFLEET— ROSHEB- 
VILLE — GRAVESEND — WINDinLL HILL —TILBURY" FORT- 
SPRINGHEAD— COBHAM-COBHAM CHLTICH— COBHAM HALL— 
COBHAM WOOD— RETURN TO GRAVESEND. 

Gravesend, despite its acknowledged character as the 
"Watering-Place" of Cockaigne, where Londoners diumally 
resort, and place implicit faith in the salt breezes wafted by an 
easterly wind to its shores, is yet one of the most pleasantly 
situated, and most easily attained, of all the places throned 
upon the margin of the Thames. It is, moreover, a capital 
starting point for a series of excursions through the finest 
parts of Kent, and has, besides, in its own immediate neigh- 
bourhood, some tempting allurements to the summer excur- 
sionist in the way of attractive scenery and venerable buildings. 
Having previously given a description of the objects passed 
down the river as far as Woolwich, we shall resume our 
details from that point, to avoid repetition. 

Off Woolwich will be observed the old ships known as 
"The Hulks," where the convicts, working in gangs, are 
employed in various useful works for the benefit of that com- 
munity whose laws they have violated. After passing Half- 
way Jleach, where there is a small public house, known as 
" The Half-way House," indicating that point (14| miles from 
London) to be exactly midway between London Bridge and 
Gravesend, we see on the Essex coast Dagenham Breach, 
where, in December, 1707, the tide broke through the dikes 
and flooded upwards of 1,000 acres. Erith next presents its 
picturesque church and wooded uplands to the right, and is a 
tempting village to loiter in when opportunity serves. A fine 



104 EKITH, 

pier, at which the boats of the "Diamond" Company call, has 
been constructed for the accommodation of those who embark or 
disembark here, and an " Arboretum," with extensive pleasure 
grounds, has been recently opened to attract -visitors. Erith 
Church is a charming study for either artist or antiquary. 
The ivy which clings about the structure, and the masses of 
foliage that rise beyond, give it a very striking aspect The 
structure consists of a nave and chancel, with a low tower and 
spire, and evidently has a venerable length of years, for 
besides the date of some of its monuments going back as far 
as the year 1420, it has been identified as the spot where 
King John and the Barons drew up their treaty of peace. In 
the south chapel is an alabaster tomb, much mutilated, to the 
memory of Elizabeth Countess of Shrewsbury, and her 
daughter Anne, Countess of Pembroke, who both died in the 
reign of Elizabeth. Adjacent are some fine brasses in good 
preservation, though the inscriptions attached to them have 
been quite obliterated. They all belong to the Waldens, 
members of the same family. Belvidere, the seat of Lord Saye 
and Sele, is an elegant mansion, in a very romantic situation, 
commanding extensive views over the country round. It was 
rebuilt towards the close of the last century, and contains 
some fine apartments of true aristocratic splendour. From 
Northumberland Heath, a spacious tract of fertile ground in 
this parish, the metropohtan markets are largely supplied 
with Kentish cherries, and in the neighbourhood some hand- 
some houses and villas have been lately erected. East India 
vessels frequently anchor in Erith Beach and discharge their 
cargoes. 

Prtrfleet, with its romantic chalk cliflls and excavations, is 
next visible on the Essex shore, and is said to have been thus 
caUed from an ejaculation of Queen Elizabeth, who exclaimed, 
"Alas! TOj Poor Fleet" as she witnessed from this spot the 
departure of her little force to oppose the passage of the 
"Invincible" Armada. The "poor fleet" having returned 
victorious, the place became thus designated in memory of the 



SABTFORD. 105 

event, but it seems to have been after all but a sorry royal 
puu, for in the time of Edward the Third it was called the 
manor of Portflete, and then belonged to the Knights of Saint 
John of Jerusalem. Here the Government Powder Magazine 
is kept, having been, in the year 1762, removed hence from 
Greenwich. About three million pounds of gunpowder are 
generally preserved in the building, which of course has been 
so constructed that no danger by explosion need be appre- 
hended. Lightning conductors are affixed to the exterior, and 
the usual regulations are observed when entering. Across the 
open country, on the Kentish side, may be seen the ancient 
cliurch of Dartford, a creek where the river Darent or Dart 
discharges its watei's into the Thames, affording a navigable 
communication with the town. Dartford was an important 
Eoman station, and is memorable in history as the scene of 
Wat Tyler's insurrection in 1382. There are still some 
remains of a nunnery founded by Edward III., and the 
powder mills and iron foundries of Messrs. Hall give great 
importance to the traffic carried on by the inhabitants. 

Greenhithe, which -we next pass, has several neat residences 
within its limits, occupying very pleasant situations ; but, 
beyond the pier, and a small parish church at Swanscombe, 
has no feature calling for special mention. The stately 
mansion seen from the river is " Ingress Abbey," the seat of 
J. Harmer, Esq., and is chiefly composed of the stone 
obtained from old London Bridge when it was pulled down. 
Swanscombe Wood, at the back, is a rare spot for pic-nic 
parties, and has a cavern rejoicing in the appellation of 
" Clappernapper's Hole," with some smuggling traditions in 
connection with it. Here it was that the men of Kent stopped 
the Norman Conqueror, and compelled him to concede the 
ancient privilege of Gavelkind. West Thurrock, on the 
opposite side the river, is devoid of anything to win more 
than a passing glance, though Belmont Castle, a fine castel- 
lated edifice belonging to a gentleman named Webb, is in a 
very agreeable position. From Greenhithe to Grays — a small 



106 BOSHEBriLLE. 

market-town on the Essex coast, with a new pier and 
numerous brick-kilns — the river is called St. Clement's Reach; 
and we then enter Northfleet Hope, where the widened 
expanse shows us the approach to Gravesend, and the 
straggling buildings of Northfleet poised upon a range of 
chalk cMs. 

Northfleet has an ancient church, one of the largest in 
Kent, containing several monuments of interesting antiquity, 
among which will be found one to Dr. Brown, physician 
to Charles 11., and some curious brasses of the fourteenth 
century. The extensive excavations about here, forming a 
sort of miniature Switzerland, not only give the scenery a 
wild and romantic aspect, but furnish valuable materials for 
the potteries. RosherviUe, though a suburb of Gravesend, 
belongs to this parish, and its neat pier is soon seen to the 
right, forming an elegant communication with that extensive 
range of buildings erected a few years since on the estate of 
the late Jeremiah Rosher. The RosherviUe Gardens are open 
daily to the public, at the moderate admission fee of sixpence, 
and present a combination of attractions, produced by the 
united agency of nature and art, that leave them almost 
without a rival. It is absolutely astonishing to see what a 
fairy-land has been here created out of a chalk-pit There are 
gala nights throughout the summer, when fireworks, music, 
and illuminations are added to the other enchantments of 
the spot The Clifton Baths, on what is called " The Parade," 
are commodiously fitted up for cold, shower, warm, and 
vapour bathing, and seem to have been built in grotesque 
mimicry of the Pavilion at Brighton. 

Gravesend has from the river a varied and pleasing aspect, 
which is not destroyed by a more intimate acquaintance with 
the town. Passengers by the boats of the " Star" Company 
are disembarked at the RosherviUe and Terrace Piers ; those 
by the " Diamond " at the Town Pier. The latter, formed of 
cast iron, belongs to the corporation, and leads up through 
the narrow High Street, studded with taverns, to the London 



GEAVESEND. 107 

Eoad The Terrace Pier, projecting on 22 cast iron columns 
nearly 200 feet into the river, leads direct to Harmer Street 
and Windmill Hill, besides affording a convenient approach 
to the elegant surburban district of Milton. The Terrace 
Gardens, on each side the entrance to the pier, are really very 
creditably and tastefully laid out, and as a day-admission- 
ticket can be had for twopence, expense is no obstacle to the 
public frequenting them. Directly you traverse the streets of 
Gravesend you see at a glance for what the town is famous. 
Shrimps and watercresses tempt the visitor in every possible 
variety of supply, and places where both are obtainable, with 
" Tea at ninepence a head," are in wonderful numerical 
strength. Like all other resorts for London visitors, tavema 
and tea gardens are abundant ; their name is legion, and 
most of them have mazes, archery grounds, and " gipsy tents" 
attached, where the inquisitive that way can purchase the 
pi'ophecy of a magnificent fortune for the smallest sum in 
silver. Apartments can be had in nearly every house, and, 
from the recognised salubrity of the air, and the beauty of the 
scenery surrounding, they are rarely untenanted during the 
height of the summer season. There is an excellent market, 
held every AVednesday and Saturday; a Town Hall, built in 
1836; a Literary Institution, with a library, billiard-rooms, 
and assembly-rooms inclusive, built in 1842; churches and 
chapels in abundance ; numerous libraries and bazaars ; water- 
works on the summit of Windmill Hill ; baths by the river, 
and a commodious Custom House near the Terrace Gardens, 
Those who like to bathe in something approximating to salt 
water should be governed by the influx of the tide, at which 
time an ablution that may be called a "Sea-bath" can be 
indulged in Avith more personal gratification. Windmill HiU 
is, however, the magnet of the multitude, and a pleasanter or 
more varied panorama than that to be obtained from its 
summit is not to be found in places of much higher preten- 
sions. There is one of the best view^s of the Thames winding 
between the shores of Kent and Essex, and, on every side, a 



108 GRAVESEND. 



far-spread landscape that embraces the shipping at the Nore, 
Southend Pier, Knockholt Beeches, on the very verge 
Sussex, and a range of country spangled with clustered 
cottages and distant masses of woodland, that displays around 
a picture of unrivalled luxuriance and fertility. The Hill is 
crowned by an excellent tavern, called " The Belle Vue," to 
the proprietor of which belongs the old windmill — the first 
erected in England, and as old in its foundations as the days 
of Edward IIL Here refreshments are provided on the largest 
and most liberal scale, and an admirable Camera, together 
Mrith some pleasure grounds, and a labyrinth of ingenious 
construction, offer the best and most captivating allurements 
to visitors. Of late years every available spot has been built 
upon about the hill, and on a fine day thousands of our 
metropolitan denizens, lea\'ing the purlieus of the smoke- 
environed city, may be seen here, scattered over its sloping 
sides, participating in the healthful enjoyment it affords, and 
breathing the purer and firesher atmosphere of its elevated 
region. Those aquatically disposed will find it worth their 
while to take a boat across the river to Tilbury Fort, opposite, 
which was built by Henry VIIL, to guard this portion of the 
river, and visitors are permitted, on application to the resident 
governor, to inspect the fortifications. Returning to Graves- 
end, the environs will be found replete with rural walks to 
gratify the eye and mind of the rambler. At Sprinyhead, 
where there is a watercress plantation of considerable extent, 
will be seen the Cemetery, neatly laid out, and covering an 
extent of about six acres. But, of all the places round, none 
should neglect an excursion to Cobham, four miles distant, 
where, in the old wood and hall, a day's enjoyment can be 
most fully ensured. There are several vehicles always ready 
to be hired, that will take the visitor at a reasonable rate by 
the road ; but as those who can appreciate a delightful walk 
will not find the distance too fatiguing, we shall proceed to 
indicate the route for the pedestrian. The Hall and Picture 
Gallery are open to the public every Friday ; admission is by 






COBHAM. 109 

tickets, price one shilling each, supplied at Caddel's Lihrary, 
and the proceeds thus resulting are applied to the school and 
other free institutions of the neighbourhood. 

Taking the footpath at the back of "Windmill Hill, the 
pedestrian will find it traversing a picturesque country, now 
crossing the sweeping undulation of a cornfield, and anon 
skirting a shaded copse with bluebells and primroses starting 
up in prodigal luxuriance through the tangled underwood. 
We next pass through a hop-plantation, and in summer, when 
the bine has sprung up to the top of the poles, and the shoots 
have thrust themselves ofi" to the next, and so joined in a 
leafy communion of luxuriant vegetation, the scene becomes 
truly Arcadian, and an excellent substitute for the vineyards 
of the south. Leaving the little village of Singlewell to the 
right, we have a finger post to guide us, and a few minutes 
after reach the outskirts of this sequestered village. The first 
object to which the visitor will naturally direct his attention is 
the old church, occupying rising ground in nearly the centre 
of the parish, and having on the southern side an extensive 
view. The antiquarian may here enjoy a great treat in 
inspecting the ancient monuments to be found in the interior, 
as there are several brasses of the Cobham family, successive 
generations of which, from the year 1354, have lived and died 
in the parish, as these memorials testify. On an altar-monu- 
ment, in the middle of the chancel, are two full length effigies, 
with several children around them in a kneeling position. 
This was erected to the memory of George Lord Cobham, 
who had been the Governor of Calais in the reign of Elizabeth, 
and who died in 1558. On the tomb of Maud de Cobham is 
a cmious sculptured figure of a dog, and one similar will be 
found in the chancel on the tomb of Joan, wife of Keginald 
Braybroke., They are worthy notice, as exemplifying the 
attachment felt towards two faithful canine adherents to the 
fortunes of the family. Outside, on the southern wall, there 
are some elegant tablets too of the Darnley family, and 
around are many humbler tombs bearing quaint and curious 



110 COBHAH. 

inscriptions. In such a scene we can aiFord to smile at the 
hacknied quotations, the recurrence of the same breaches of 
grammar, the inroads upon the laws of poetry and the 
common- sense of prose. Occasionally, however, we meet with 
epitaphs endowed with a keen perception of beauty, or 
indicatiye of strong natural feeling, and these cannot but 
excite a solemn pleasure in the heart of the rural pedestrian. 
At the back of the church are some almshouses for the 
reception of twenty poor people, who have each a quarter of 
an acre of land, and a monthly stipend of eighteen shillings. 
It was originally founded in 1362. The inmates of this 
ancient building, dignified with the name of a college, are 
nominated respectively by the proprietor of Cobham Hall, the 
wardens of Rochester Bridge, and the neighbouring parishes. 
Passing through the village which the readers of " Pickmck" 
will remember to have been the scene of one of the most 
humorous adventures of that reno\\"ned " Club," we proceed 
to the old Hall, bearing the name of a family that, from the 
reign of King John to the accession of James I., was amongst 
the most eminent in the country. Before describing the 
building it will not be uninteresting to glance at the history 
of its former o\vners. In the 15th century the Cobham estate 
belonged to Joan, grand-daughter and heiress of John Lord 
Cobham. This lady had no less than five husbands, one of 
them being the celebrated Sir John Oldcastle, who assumed 
the title of Cobham. Sir John, who had been the intimate 
friend of Henry V. in his younger days, and in whom some 
have erroneously detected the original of Sir John Falstafl', 
was soon after charged by the clergy with favouring the 
Lollards, and inciting " grievous heresy" in the king's 
dominions. In the proclamation issued by the King it is 
declared that the Lollards meant to destroy him, confiscate 
the possessions of the church, and appoint Sir John Oldcastle 
president of the Commonwealth. He was in consequence 
taken prisoner, in 1616, and, after an obstinate resistance, was 
sentenced to be banged as a traitor and burned as a heretic. 



COBHAM. Ill 

The estates, however, remained in the possession of his widow, 
who died in 1433, and from this period till 1596 they de- 
scended in lineal succession. In that year they came into the 
possession of Henry Lord Cobham, who was Lord Warden of 
the Cinque Ports, Constable of Dover Castle, and Lord 
Lieutenant of the county. In 1603 this nobleman was 
accused, with others, of having been concerned in Sir Walter 
Raleigh's conspiracy, and being brought to trial at Winches- 
ter, on account of the plague then raging in London, they 
were found guilty and judgment of death recorded. The 
brother of Lord Cobham was executed, but in his own case 
the sentence was remitted, and the estate being confiscated, he 
was reduced to the greatest poverty, his death, in 1619, being 
accelerated through absolute want. Having thus fallen into 
possession of the Crown, the manor of Cobham was granted 
by James I. to James Stewart, one of his own kinsmen, who 
seems with his successor not to have exhibited very thrifty 
management, for the house and grounds were sold at the 
close of the 17th century to enable the owner to satisfy his 
creditors. The price given furnishes a curious contrast with 
that which would be realized in the present day. The deer 
park, with the paddocks, containing as by survey 830 acres, 
was only valued at ten shillings the acre, the timber, woods, 
&c., being all included. It is also incidentally mentioned that 
at this time the mansion, which cost £60,000 building, had 
fourteen acres of orchard and garden-ground attached. 

The remainder of its history may be briefly told. In 1714 
the Hall and estate came by man-iage into the possession of 
an Irish family of the name of Bligh, one of whom, in 1725, 
was created Earl of Darnley, and the seat of the Earls of 
Darnley it has continued to be ever since. The Hall is a 
massive and stately structure, consisting of two wings and 
a noble centre, the work of Inigo Jones. The oldest portions 
are those at the two extremities, flanked with octagonal 
towers, but modern art, in contributing the sashed windows 
and brickwork facing, has increased the comfort of the 



112 COBHAM. 

mansion at the expense of the picturesque. The Picture 
Gallery, having a choice collection of paintings by the old 
masters, and the unique gilt hall, form the most prominent 
features of attraction in the interior, but the apartments 
besides are elegantly furnished, and the quadrangle and old 
brick passages of the outbuildings wear about them an 
aspect of unmistakeable antiquity. On the south side, leading 
up to the principal entrance, is a noble lime tree avenue, 
extending upwards of 3,000 feet in length. In the park, 
which is nearly seven miles round, there are some noble oak 
and chesnut trees, many of them measuring twenty feet and 
upwards in circumference. It has also the reputation of pro- 
ducing venison of superior flavour, derived from the peculiar 
excellence of the herbage, and it was on this fare probably 
that both Queen Elizabeth and Charles 11. were regaled when 
they visited Cobham ; for the former, according to Strype, 
was welcomed with a " delectable banquet and great cheer." 
In a romantic spot, towards the south-east end of the park, 
on an eminence called " William's Hill," there is a spacious 
mausoleum, erected, in 1783, by the present Lord Damley's 
grandfather. It is built of Portland stone, in an octagonal 
form, after the Doric order, and cost £9,000, but, never having 
been consecrated, it has not been devoted to the purpose for 
which it was intended. 

Cobham Wood is a glorious region for the rambler, and the 
footpath to Rochester, through the very heart of its sylvan 
solitudes, a delightiiil track to follow. The pedestrian can 
also return, through the wood and Upper Shome, to Graves- 
end by way of Chalk. Either way, a day's enjoyment here 
is complete. The countless hordes of wild flowers, the golden 
treasures of the prickly gorse, the dark green majesty of the 
fern — that always looks to us like a miniature resemblance to 
those Eastern trees spoken of in the " Arabian Nights" — and 
all these spangled with the beads of sunlight, flung down, 
through the spreading branches overhead, from the azure 
canopy above, and there is here enough and more than 



COBHAM WOOD. 113 

enough to drive away from the heart every sign of care and 
worldly grievance. It is no slight addition to the picturesque 
charms of the forest foliage if you can wait and watch the 
eifect of the sunset, marking the rich gradations of light and 
shade in which the quivering leaves ai-e alternately steeped. 
In fact there is many a less interesting place to loiter in than 
Cobham Wood, and the dreamy tone imparted to the mental 
faculties by such a meditative lounge is a sort of warm bath 
for the imagination, refreshing it with a reverie which will 
enable the every-day realities of life to be more vigorously 
grappled with, and more successfully turned to advantage.* 

The whole country round here is fuU of temptations for the 
erratic rambler, and the winding green lanes and quiet foot- 
paths, that lead away from Cobham to the secluded villages 
towards the south, are enough to make a staid, sober citizen, 
who cherishes an intrusive recollection of dismal counting- 
houses and thefr commercial concomitants, envy that reckless 
freedom and joyous liberty possessed by the wandering 
vagrants whom he will occasionally encounter on the road. 
It is just the region where imagination lends a ray of ideal 
beauty to even the most trite occurrences of such a roaming 
life as that of the gipsy. We feel momentarily fascinated with 
that glorious embodiment of the poetry of vagabondism — that 
sunny existence spent in bye roads and bosky dells, tented by 
the spreading branches of fine old oaks, and sheltered by 
Nature's awnings from the summer rays — that reUc of the 
eastern clime, which serves as a picturesque inroad on the 
dull conventionalities of country living, and throws a dash of 
romantic adventure into a chance encounter with the tribe. 
Yet with whatever alluring colours fancy may invest the 
gipsy life, another moment's reflection soon dispels the 
illusion, by reminding us that the aspect under which they 

* For farther particulars connected with Gravesend and the scenery of 
the coast see " Adams's Guide to the Watcrinp-Places of England," in 
■which a complete description is given of all the most admired marina 
resorts throughout England, the Channel Islands, &c. 
I 



114 COBHAM WOOD. 

\'iew their career is widely different to what seems apparent 
to an unconcerned observer; and that, although daily sur- 
rounded by landscapes of rural beauty and sublimity, a want 
of mental refinement disqualifies them for the thorough enjoy- 
ment of the scenes by which they are environed. But to 
those with an imagination properly constructed there is an 
extraordinary charm about a ramble of this kind. We put off 
all the grating cares and petty annoyances of life when we 
put on our easy boots. We become ourselves the very 
incarnation of happiness; the pink — possibly not of perfection 
— but of pleasantry; and in short, if the proper state of mind 
has been duly attained, a day's ramble in Cobham Wood will 
make one of those " green spots in memory's waste" on which 
it is so delightful afterwards to repose, and listlessly ruminate 
over cheerful retrospections: — 

" As when in ocean sinks the orh of day, 
Long on the wave reflected lustres play ; 
These once bright scenes of days left far behind. 
Glance on the darkened mirror of the mind." 



EXCURSION III. 

GRAVESEND TO ROCHESTER— ROCHESTER CASTLE— 
THE CATHEDRAL— COWLING CASTLE— BEAUTIFUL SCENERY 
OF THE IIEDWAY— CHATHAM— THE DOCKYARD-GARRISON— 
BROMPTON BARRACKS — UPNOR CASTLE — THE RACES — 
REVIEWS. 

From Gravesend to Rochester the excursionist has now the 
choice of road or rail. Trains start every hour throughout the 
day, and omnibuses likewise depart on the arrival of each 
steamboat from London. The Gravesend and Roclicster 
Railway runs parallel with the Thames and Medway Canal, 
now filled up below Higham, and passes through a tunnel 
two miles in length. As the road presents a greater variety of 
scenery we shall indicate the objects passed by that route in 
preference. Just out of Gravesend, crossing the line of rail- 
way in prospective communication with the Terminus by 
London Bridge, we pass Milton Church, a venerable edifice, 
which, though recently modernised, has still some portions 
remaining of the old tower built in the 15th century. On the 
other side of Chalk is Chalk Church, one of the most ancient 
in England, and having over the porch some cui'ious sculp- 
tured figures that have long perplexed antiquaries to account 
for their origin. The road then winds over Gad's HDl, 
the scene of Falstaff's imaginary encounter with the men 
in " buckram," and the Shaksperian adventure on which is 
perpetuated by the signboard of a roadside tavern laying in 
the hollow beyond. A short distance further and the grey 
towers of Rochester Castle, rising above the surrounding 
buildings, meet our view, forming a picture, as we descend 
the hill towards Strood, of great interest and beauty. Strood, 
I 2 



116 HOCHESTEE. 

though an ancient place, now derives all its importance from 
its vicinity to Rochester; so crossing the stone bridge, 560 feet 
long, which spans the Medway — here winding on through 
cultivated meadows and fertile uplands — we at once enter the 
precincts of this time-hallowed cathedral city. 

Rochester is believed to have been a British town long 
before the Roman invasion, and from ancient documents the 
city appejirs to have been walled round at least as early as the 
time of the first Ethelbert The bridge itself is one of the 
finest old bridges in England, and was built, in 1392, by Sir 
Robert Knowles, a reno^vned miUtary knight of the court of 
Edward III. If the Saxons had a castle here no portion of 
such building remains, for the oldest fragments of the present 
ruin are in the early Norman style ; and most probably this 
was one of the many fortresses erected by William the Con- 
queror. Embosomed amidst the finest scenery in all Kent, 
Rochester Castle stands also in an extremely favorable posi- 
tion for defence, occupying the south-west angle of the city, 
on an eminence rising abruptly from the Medway. Here and 
there are vestiges of the outward walls, which formed an 
irregular parallelogram of about three hundred feet in length, 
strengthened by square and round towers, provided vnth. 
loop-holes and machicolations ; but these, with the walls 
themselves, are fast crumbling into decay. The composition 
used in their structure was the Kentish ragstone, cemented by 
a strong grout or mortar, in which immense quantities of sea- 
shells were embedded, acquiring from age a consistency equal if 
not superior to stone itself. Eour centuries have elapsed since 
the castle was last repaired, and the deep ditch, which formerly 
defended the north, south, and east sides, is now filled up. Of 
all the fragments of the towers remaining none equal in 
extent and durabiUty those of " Gundulph's Tower," which 
was erected by that busy builder and bishop whose name it 
bears. It is of a quadrangular form, 112 feet high, and 70 feet 
long at the base. The walls, as they rise from the ground, 
incline slightly inwards. Ascending tlie winding stairs, of 



BOCHESTEB. 117 

about six feet in width, and which, now much decayed, open 
into every apartment, we see to advantage the upper stories of 
this decayed and roofless ruin. The state apartments appear 
to have been in the third story, where there are still four 
arched doorways, richly ornamented, and 18 feet in height, 
with a column dividing each of about four feet in diameter. 
Through the partition walls a well, nearly three feet in 
diameter, ascends to the summit, communicating on its way 
with each floor of the building. The roof of the highest room 
is 93 feet in height from the ground, and beyond this there is 
an uncovered battlement rising seven feet higher. The turrets 
at the four corners ascend to the height of 12 feet above the 
battlement, and hence there is a magnificent view over the 
valley of the Mcdway and the country round, inclusive of the 
city below and the heights of Chatham. AH the rooms have 
fire-places, but, in e's-idence of the discomfort that prevailed 
in the " good old times," there is not the slightest indication 
of a chimney, the smoke passing through a mere hole in the 
wall, which with other openings served for the admission of 
light and air. 

Rochester Cathedral, one of the oldest ecclesiastical edifices 
in England, stands near the middle of the city, a little to the 
south of the High Street. It was founded as long ago as the year 
604, but the principal portion was erected by Gundulph in the 
11th century. William Lambarde, in his "Perambulation of 
the County of Kent," speaking of Gundulph, who was Bishop 
of Rochester for above 30 years, says " he never rested from 
building and begging, tricking and garnishing, until he 
had erected his idol building to the wealth, beauty, and 
estimation of a popish priory." The architecture is of the 
early Norman style, or that which preceded what is com- 
monly called the Gothic; it has been considerably repaired of 
late, and in 1840 the whole structure undenvent a general 
renovation and improvement. Between the years 1827 and 
1834 no less than £14,000 was spent in the repairs. The 
edifice forms a double cross, and at the intersection of the 



118 BOCHESTEK. 

transepts is a tower, erected in 1825. The entire length of the 
cathedral from east to west is 306 feet. The western and 
principal entrance is enriched with a liberal display of florid 
architectural ornaments, hut it has been considerably defaced 
by time and the Parliamentary soldiers, who are said to have 
conTerted one part of the cathedral into a carpenter's shop 
and the other into an ale-house. On each side of the door 
are a row of small pillars supporting a corresponding series of 
arches. Two of the pillars are fashioned into statues repre- 
senting Henry I. and his Queen Matilda, in whose time, and 
chiefly from whose money, the structure was raised. Under 
the arch there is a curious carving representing our Saviour 
sitting in a niche, ^vith an angel on each side, and the twelve 
apostles at his feet in a lower border, but the design is far 
from being intelligible. Above is a large window, evidently 
the work of a later age, and indeed the windows throughout, 
together with the roof, manifestly have a more recent origin. 
The interior contains some attractive monuments, and several 
of the early bishops are buried in the crypt underneath, which 
is very spacious. The whole is well worthy the outlay of the 
small fee for which, with the castle, it may be viewed. 
Rochester has, besides the cathedral, two churches remaining 
out of the four it once had, and these are very ancient. Saint 
Nicholas' Church was built in 1421, and St. Margaret's, much 
modernised, has a curious stone font and some old monu- 
ments. In the upper part of High Street is an antique 
endowment, called " The Poor Traveller's House," where a 
frugal breakfast and supper, together with fourpence when 
leading, could be obtained by all wayfarers who were not, 
according to the inscription, either "Eogues or Proctors." 
About four miles north-east of Rochester may be seen the 
ruins of Cowling Castle, of which the gateway, flanked by 
two large semicircular towers, and an ivy-cro^vncd turret, 
near it, alone remain. It was besieged by Sir Thomas Wyatt 
in the reign of Queen Mary, and soon after nearly demolished, 
the area now enclosing a large tract used as a farm. On the 



CHATHAM. 119 

Other side of Rochester Bridge an excursion up the Medway 
to Maidstone will be found replete with panoramic diversity 
of scenery. 

Chat/iam — so closely contiguous to Eochester that the 
buildings form a line of communication between the two 
places — was originally a small village, and owes all its im- 
portance to the extensive dockyard and garrison, which ever 
invest it with a lively and busy appearance. The entrance to 
the dockyard is through a lofty gateway, ornamented with 
an embattled tower on each side, and leading to an extensive 
area nearly a mile in length. Besides four wet docks, capable 
of receiving first rate men of war, a new stone dock has been 
lately constructed on a still larger scale. Along the banks 
are numerous storehouses — one of which is 660 feet in length 
— capacious magazines, a chapel, six slips or launches, and 
the commodious residences belonging to the officers connected 
with the various departments. The artificers employed in the 
dockyard are in time of war above 3,000 in number. To the 
west of the docks, on a narrow slip of land between the 
church and the river, is the ordnance wharf, where huge tiers 
of cannon and pyramids of shot are stored away, for uses to 
which let us hope they will have no occasion to be put. The 
baiTacks at Brompton are exceedingly large, and afford 
accommodation to an enormous force, some estimate of which 
may be gathered from the census taken in 1841 giving the 
resident marine and military population of Chatham at 6,505. 
The hospitals attached are on the most liberal scale of 
comfort and expenditure, and the precautions taken to guard 
the various premises from fire are singularly complete and 
efficacious. 

Upnor Castle, which lies on the opposite side of the 
Medway, near Strood, is now used as a powder magazine- 
Chatham Races are held in August, on the heights, and 
always attract a gay concourse of visitors ; but the reviews, 
of more frequent occurrence, are a never-failing source of 
interest and admiration to the spectators, who muster in 



120 CHATHAM. 

thousands upon these occasions. The lively music of the 
military bands, the bright gaiety of the accoutrements, and 
the wondrous precision of the evolutions, form a combination 
more calculated than perhaps any other sight in England to 
dazzle.the eye and infect the dullest peasant with a passion 
for military " glory." 



EXCURSION IV. 

EDENBRIDGE BY THE SOUTH-EASTERN RAILWAY— THE 
RIVER EDEN— ROAD TO HE\T:R— HE\'ER CHURCH— HEVER 
CASTLE— ANNE BOLEYN'S BEDROOM— THE SECRET DONJON 
—THE GREAT HALL— CHIDDINGSTONE — PENSHURST — THE 
PARK AND CASTLE — TONBRIDGE WELLS — SEVENOAKS — 
KNOLE— RIVERHEAD— CHEVENING-KNOCKHOLT BEECHES— 
HALSTE AD— FARN^OROUGH- KESTON — BROMLEY— BECIUNG- 
HAM— THE "QUEEN OF THE GIPSIES "—RETURN HOME. 

For oar next excursion the assistance of the South-Eastem 
Railway is desirable. Procure a ticket for the Edenbridge 
Station, 31 miles from London, and you ^vill be promptly 
deposited in one of the prettiest and most picturesque villages 
in Kent, after a railway ride that has always something to 
recommend it on the score of scenery. The village is about a 
mile from the station, and is chiefly inhabited by the followers 
of St. Crispin, but the charming pastoral look of the whole 
district, traversed by the river Eden, almost justifies the 
adoption of such an appellation for the stream. After a glance 
at the church, which presents nothing very remarkable, we turn 
off by a bye-road to the left, under the direction of a finger-post, 
and passing through a highly fertile region, intersected by plea- 
sant footpaths amid cornfields and hop-gardens, we reach, after 
an agreeable two miles walk, the little hamlet of Hever, where 
we may pause at the humble hostel bearing the name of 
" Henry VIII.," and recruit our strength with some of mine 
host's home-brewed, whilst we refiresh our memory with the 
incidents that have made the locality memorable in history. 
In the church is a stately marble tomb to the memory of Sir 
Thomas Boleyn (father of the unfortunate Anne), with this 
inscription: — '^ Here lieth Sir Thomas BuUen, Knight of the 
Order of the Garter, Erie of Wiltshire, and Erie of Ormond, 



122 HEVEB CASTT£. 



wiche deceased the 12 deiie of March in the Tear of ortr Lord 
1538." Some memorials of the Cobham and Waldo families 
are also in the chancel. 

Hever Castle is about a quarter of a mile from the church, 
and looks, even at a distance, like a building hallowed by the 
associations of the past. It was erected, in the reign of 
Edward 111^ by William De Hevre, who obtained a charter 
from the king to " embattle his house," and have the privilege 
of free- warren. In the reign of Henry the Sixth it was pur- 
chased by Sir GreofFrey Boleyn, sometime Lord Mayor of 
London, and grand&ther to the luckless maiden who after- 
wards became Queen to Henry VHI. At present the Waldo 
family are in possession of the mansion, which now forms a 
quadrangle enclosing an inner paved courtyard. The front of 
the castle is composed of a central keep, with gate and port- 
cullis beneath, and a square tower on each side. Most of the 
defensive works are in good preservation, the original doors, 
wickets, knockers, and gratings being yet remaining. The 
courtyard is fancifully inlaid with red bricks, and leads across 
to the house, built in the very early Tudor style. The 
apartments, to which a small gratuity will generally procure 
a Cicerone, are usually entered by what is now the kitchen, 
though it formerly served as the great dining hall of the 
mansion. This room is very spacious, being 90 feet long and 
30 wide, and, having some of the old furniture remaining, is 
not traversed without interest. The staircase beyond com- 
municates with several small ante-rooms, panelled with oak, 
and a long gallery having an ornamented ceiling in stucco. 
One of these is Anne Boleyn's bedroom, said to be religiously 
preserved in its original condition, and having such a delight- 
fully antique appearance that it requires no unwarrantable 
credulity to believe the tradition. The very bed whereon 
Anne reposed stands in gloomy grandeur in a dark comer of 
the room, and, surrounded by its heavy hanging of yellow 
damask, looks just the place to create the most intensely 
fearful dreams. Here, too, are the very tables and chairs that 



1 



HEVEB CASTUE. 123 

foiined the furniture of her boudoir, and in one of the sides of 
the apartment is a dismal recess that most probably ser\'ed as 
a strong cupboard for valuables, though its horrors are 
increased by a legend that Anne was incarcerated within, 
and nearly starved to death, by order of her inhuman 
husband. At the upper end of the gallery is a trap- door, 
which when lifted up discovers a narrow and precipitons 
descent, said to lead as far as the moat, and comprising a cell 
very aptly named " the dungeon." Here, in the " troublous 
times" of yore, the family are presumed to have secreted 
themselves for safety, and a very uncomfortable mode of 
seclusion it must have been. Passing from the mansion into 
the interior of the castle, to which a winding stair in one of the 
towei's will conduct us, we enter the great hall, occupying 
nearly the whole ^vidth of the castle, and bearing on its walls 
a number of ancient family portraits. Among them is one, 
pensive and placid, representing Anne Boleyn herself, in the 
dress which she wore on the day of her execution. Her royal 
honors were but of short duration. On the 25th of January, 
1533, her marriage with the many-wived monarch took place; 
on the 1st of June she was cro^vned; on the 7 th of September 
she had a daughter, afterwards Queen Elizabeth ; and in less 
than three years, on the 19th of May, 1536, in the 26th year of 
her age and in the very prime of womanhood, she was 
unjustly executed. The whole history of this unhappy union 
is perhaps one of the most romantic and tragical in our 
English annals. The spot thus imperishably linked with the 
name of the ill-fated Queen has been somewhat graphically 
described in the following versification, which we quote as 
giving a poetic notion of the appearance now presented by 
this interesting mansion and castle : — 

" Ado\ni the crowded woods of Kent, 
With embrasure and battlement, 
Vhilome of many a fray the scene, 
And still denoting what hath been, 
In silent grandeur to the skies 
The old grey walls of Hever rise ; 



124 PENSHUEST. 

The moat, which fed by Eden's stream 

Then laved its base, now calm doth seem, 

As if (in grief for those whose sway 

Holed o'er it in a brigliter day. 

And left a charm thereon imprest). 

Its tide had wept itself to rest : 

The entrance flanked by towers which frown 

In all their Gothic sternness down ; 

In rust the teethed portcullis hung, 

The arch wherefrom the drawbridge swung, 

The broad barr'd windows round which time 

Hath Ivy- footed dared to climb. 

Are features that e'en now declare. 

How mighty Hever's glories were." 

Leaving Hever we pursue our way towards Penshurst, 
encountering, at two miles distance, the old and most 
romantic village of Chiddingstone, which only wants a Chalet 
or two and some Alpine heights beyond to make it a per- 
fect resemblance to a Swiss hamlet. There are here some 
vestiges of the ancient Druids, and the church has the credit 
of possessing the finest tower in the county. Hardly a mile 
and a half further we come to Penshurst, full of associations 
connected with valour and poetry. Here the brave Sir Philip 
Sidney resided and wrote his Arcadia, and here Ben Jonson, 
Waller, Shelley, and others have immortalized in verse its 
sylvan glories, Penshurst Castle is now the seat of Lord De 
Lisle and Dudley, who has contributed some valuable paint- 
ings to the picture gallery, previously rich in the works of the 
dd masters. It is of a quadrangular form, including a 
spacious court, chapel, and hall, and by the courtesy of the 
present proprietor the public are admitted to view the interior, 
under certain necessary restrictions. The Sidney family have 
held it in possession since the reign of Edward VL Nothing 
can be finer than the spacious Park, which was once acknow- 
ledged to be the most beautiful in the kingdom, and there is a 
famous oak yet standing, which tradition identifies as the one 
planted at the birth of Sir Philip Sidney. We can return by rail- 
way hence either from the station near the village or go on to 



1 



8EVEN0AK.S. 125 

Tunbridge Wells, about six miles distant. The Tunbridge 
station on the South-Eastern Eailway is also within an hour's 
walk. 

By way of varying the route home we would suggest 
taking the coach road back through Sevenoaks, situated on 
the ridge of that great chain of sand hills which runs across 
the county, and divides the upland from the weald, and in the 
midst of a richly diversified country. Near the town is Knole 
House and Park, the seat of the late Dukes of Dorset, and 
now in the occupation of Earl Amherst. The park consists 
of nearly 1,000 acres, and the mansion is reputed the most 
magnificent seat in the south of England. The public enjoy 
the privilege of admission both to the house and grounds, and 
the picture gallery in the former is of unrivalled value, com- 
prising the best specimens of the works of Holbein, Titian 
Correggio, Vandyke, Lely, Poussin, Teniers, Rembrandt, 
Salvator Eosa, and Sir Joshua Reynolds. At Biver Head, a 
little village a mile and a half distant, is Montreal, the seat of 
Lord Holmesdale, and at Chevening, four miles from Sevenoaks, 
is the seat of Earl Stanhope, whose noble mansion and park 
are at all times open to the public. The maze formed in the 
grounds here is even larger than that at Hampton Court. We 
next pass by Knockholt and its high hill, whereupon some old 
trees, called " Knockholt beeches," have such a lofty station 
that they can be seen from nearly every direction for forty 
miles round, and are equally discernible from Leith Hill, 
Harrow, and Gravesend. Through Halstead, Farnborough, 
and Keston, we come to Bromley, the whole distance exhibit- 
ing a continued succession of landscapes, and having traces of 
old Roman encampments in the districts surrounding. Brom- 
ley is fourteen miles from Sevenoaks and ten from London. 
A plain brick building, rebuilt in 1777, on a hill towards 
Beckenham, is still a palace of the Bishops of Rochester. 
There is a chalybeate spring in the garden, known as the 
" well of St. Blaize." Two miles from Bromley is Beckenham, 
a little village where there is a specimen of the " Lich Gate," 



126 BECKEXHAM. 

on which faneral processions were wont to deposit their 
burden and rest on their way to interment In the parish 
church of Beckenham was buried (October 24th, 1740) Mar- 
garet Finch, the " Queen of the Gipsies," who attained the 
great age of 109 years. After travelling for a century over 
various parts of the country she eventually settled at Nor- 
wood, where her age and the fame of her fortune-telling 
attracted numerous visitors, and not a few of rank and title. 
From a habit of sitting on the ground, with her chin resting 
on her knees, she became so contracted that the posture 
became permanent, and when she died they enclosed her body 
in a deep square box. Her portrait formerly adorned a house 
of entertainment at Nonvood called " The Gipsy House." 

We can hence cross over to Sydenham and take the Croy- 
don Eailway, or return by road, through Lewisham and 
Camberwell, back to the metropolis. 



PAKT IV. 

ESSEX. 
EXCUKSION I. 

THE EASTERN COUNTIES RAILWAY (CAMBRIDGE 
BRANCH)— STRATFORD— BOW BRIDGE— LOW LAYTON— EAST 
HAM— WALTHAMSTOW— BONDER'S END — CHINGFORD— CHIG- 
WELL — EPPING FOREST — WALTHAil ABBEY — TOMB OF 
HAROLD — CRYPT — CUEIOUS TULIP TREE— BROXBOURNE— 
ANGLING LOCALITIES— THE RYE HOUSE— THE "MEAL-TUB" 
PLOT— BURNT MILL — HARLOW — SAWBRIDGEWORTH— CAM- 
BRIDGE. 

The " Eastern Counties Kailway" famishes a speedy mode of 
cultivating acquaintance with Epping Forest and the fertile 
fishing district of the Lea, and Ponder 's End, Waltham, and 
Broxbourne are especially good points for starting on a 
pleasure trip from the station. We shall for the first excursion 
take the Cambridge Branch, and give the visitor an opportunity 
of taking his ticket for either of the places we have indicated 
above. 

Leaving the commodious station at Shoreditch and crossing 
on a long viaduct the miserable region tenanted by the 
Spitalfield weavers, we have on our left Bethnal Green and 
Bonner's Fields, the scene of the late Chartist disturbances. A 
fine open space has been cleared away here within the last 
few years for the establislmient of the new ** Victoria Park," 
where the hard-working artisans of the eastern suburbs may 
escape from the moil and turmoil of the human hive to the 
pleasanter pathways amid trees and flowers. Passing Bow 
Church and the Tower Hamlets Cemetery on the right, and 



128 STBATFOBD. 

the Reservoir of the East London Waterworks on the left, we 
reach Stratford, a busy station on the line, wheqce branches 
diverge to Ipswich on the north, and the Thames Terminus 
opposite Woolwich, on the east. Being the principal depot for 
the locomotive and carriage department, many of the artificers 
employed about the railway reside here, and a number of 
houses, distinguished collectively as " Hudson New Town," 
has been erected for their accommodation. The mention 
made by Chaucer of the manner in which one of his heroines 
spoke French " after the scole of Stratford-atte-Bowe," not 
only marks its antiquity, but shows its early reputation as a 
place for seminaries. The bridge over the Lea at Bow was 
built by Matilda, Queen of Henry I., and was the oldest stone 
bridge in England. It was pulled down in 1 830, and a new 
stone bridge of substantial appearance substituted. This 
bridge unites Middlesex and Essex. Bow Church, with its 
ivy covering, is as old as the reign of Henry H., and exhibits 
some portions of Norman architecture, well displayed by its 
position in the middle of the road. The new church of St. 
John, at Stratford, is an elegant structure, built in 1836, and 
is situated at the junction of the Newmarket and Colchester 
roads. Some remains of an abbey, founded for Cistercian 
monks in 1135, were lately existing here. The line now 
crosses some extensive marshes watered by the Lea, from 
which river Low Layton and Laytonstone derive their appella- 
tion. In the last century some valuable Eoman remains 
were here found, during an excavation, and a curious subter- 
ranean arched gateway discovered. The church contains a 
tomb to the memory of John Strype, the antiquary, who was 
buried here at the ripe old age of 94, in 1737, after having 
been the vicar here for nearly 70 years. Monuments are also 
seen to the Earl of Norwich, William Bowyer, an eminent 
printer, and others of some note. At Riwkliolts are tlie vestiges 
of some ancient entrenchments, and the Temple Mills, now 
used as Lead Works, were formerly in possession of the 
Knights Templars. In the ancient church of East Ham is 



WAXTHAM ABBET. 129 

buried another renowned antiquary, Dr. Stukely, without any 
inscription, according to his request ; there is only the date of 
his death (1765). The parish extends from Wanstead flats to 
the Thames. 

Wahhamstow is a mile west of the Tottenham Station, and 
dates back to the time of Edward the Confessor. The church 
has a fine square tower, built in 1535, and contains some 
good monuments. Here was bom George Gascoigne, one of 
our earliest poets. From Pander's End we would suggest a 
stroll on to Chingford, two miles from the station, and thence 
explore onward to the west. Chingford Church, a small 
antique building nearly covered with ivy, has a delightful 
situation on a gentle grassy eminence overlooking the Lea on 
one side, and the wooded undulations of Epping Forest on 
the other. We would especially recommend in fine weather 
a walk leading on to Chigwell and Chigwell Row, where the 
famous hostel of the " Maypole," mentioned in " Bamaby 
Rudge," is yet standing, though much altered of late. The 
glades and sylvan avenues around Highbeach, Sewardstone, 
and Upshire, are very beautiful, and capital places for a pic- 
nic. We can then, to rejoin the railway, go round by 
Waltham Abbey, Canute's favorite hunting station, and which, 
though now a small town, formerly was honored with the 
residence of Henry HL Here are some Government Powder 
Mills on a large scale, and near the Abbey Mills, on a wide 
space of ground called the " Bramblings," Henry VIH. had a 
small pleasure-house that he used as an occasional residence, 
and here he first met Cranmer, a meeting that afterwards led 
to such important results. The branches of the Lea about 
Waltham are said to flow in the channels originally made by 
Alfred the Great, when he left the Danish fleet dry on the 
shore by altering the course of the river. The remains of the 
once famous monastery, from which the town takes its name, 
are at the back of the parish church, a portion of which was 
the old conventual chapel. They consist of an entrance gate- 
way and bridge across an arm of the Lea, some vaulted 

K 



130 WALTHAM ABBET. 

arches, and a few broken walls. Judging from its size, the 
church must have been a magnificent specimen of Saxon 
architecture. Previous to the battle of Hastings, Harold here 
offered up his vows, and, after the fatal termination of the 
conflict, it was here that he was brought for interment with 
his two brothers, Garth and Leofwin, by their unhappy 
mother Githa, who with difficulty obtained even the dead 
bodies of her sons from the hands of the conquering Norman. 
The site of Harold's tomb, which stood in a chapel beyond the 
east end of the choir, is no less than 120 feet distant from the 
termination of the present edifice. The nave, with its side 
aisles, forms the body of the parish church, and is in the 
Norman style, with round massive piers, decorated formerly 
with costly brass embellishments. It is about 90 feet in length, 
and 48 in breadth. A lofty square embattled tower, 86 feet 
high, was erected at the west end of the church in 1558. The 
" Chapel of our Ladye," now used as a vestry and school- room, 
projects from the southern side of the church, and has beneath 
it a fine arched crypt, which, says Fuller, who was the 
incumbent here from 1648 to 1658, is " the fairest I ever saw." 
At the south east end is another chapel, now a mere receptacle 
for rubbish. A wooden screen bearing the arms of Philip and 
Mary is worthy notice, as well as a font of great antiquity. 
The glass painting of Harold, which was formerly near the 
screen, was destroyed wantonly by the Puritans in their 
display of animosity to all that savoured of kingly power. 
Eastward of the church stood the Refectory, and the Abbey 
Farm occupies the site of the ancient stables. Farmer quaintly 
remarks that the church " is observed by all artists, and the 
most carious, to stand the exactest east and west of any other 
in Great Britain." No slight praise for an architect who 
worked before the time of the " Mariner's Compass." In the 
Abbey gardens is a tulip tree, esteemed the largest in England, 
and said to measure nine feet six inches in circumference. 

Broxboume, to which allusion has been made in our fourth 
Middlesex Excursion, is the next station of importance, and 



ETB HOUSE. 131 

the silvery track of the Lea may hence be pleasantly followed 
with rod and line for miles. The whole of this region is 
thoroughly identified with Izaak Walton and the " Complete 
Angler." Modern Piscators, too, are constantly seen plying 
their gentle vocation on the borders of the Lea and Stort, 

whose 

"— — plenteous streams a various race supply ; 
The bright-ey'd perch with fins of Tyrian dye ; 
Tlie silver eel in shining volumes roU'd ; 
The yellow carp, in scales bedropped with gold ; 
Sirift trouts, diversified with crimson stains, 
And pikes the tyrants of the watery plains." 

There are several pretty wayside hostels, too, about the banks, 
that provide good accommodation for fishing parties, and at 
these perchance a satisfactory modern substitute may be 
found for that delectable potation spoken of by the epicurean 
Izaak, and which he describes as composed of " sack, milk, 
oranges, and sugar, which all put together made a drink like 
nectar; indeed, too good for any but us anglers." 

About a mile and a half from Broxbourne, and 21 miles 
from London, is the Rye House, situated on the Lea, near 
where it joins the Stort, and close to the old market town of 
Hoddesdon, previously described. A well-appointed tavern, 
that has borrowed its name from the mansion, lies on the side 
of the road to Stanstead Abbots and Harlow. The old mansioil 
itself lies to the north of the tavern, at a short distance from 
the east bank of the river. Few need be reminded that here 
assembled the conspirators who intended, it is said, to have 
murdered Charles IL and his brother James, Duke of York 
(afterwards James II.), on their road home from Newmarket. 
The house, which formerly occupied considerable space, was 
built by one Andrew Ogard, in the reign of Henry VI., and 
being surrounded by a moat, was, from its insular position, 
called " the Isle of Rye." At the period (1683) when this 
" meal-tub plot " was alleged to be in process of concoction, 
the house was tenanted by a maltster named Rumbald. The 
return of the monarch being at a much earlier period than 



132 HABLOW — SAWBEIDGEWOKTH. 

was expected, is said to have frustrated the conspirators, but 
there is every reason to believe that the whole affair existed 
only in the heated imagination of the witnesses. So implicitly, 
however, was it believed at the time, that those noble-minded 
patriots Russell and Sydney were tried and executed, on 
account of their supposed connection with an absurd plot 
which the whole evidence brought forward tended to disprove. 
The maltster, Kumbald, escaped at the time, but when, some 
years after, he was attending the Duke of Argyle, on his 
landing in Scotland, he was taken captive, and suffered the 
most horrible death that can be conceived. Although much 
wounded at the time when he was captured, a contemporary 
writer says, that " he was hoisted up by a pulley and hanged 
awhile; he was then let down, scarce fully dead, his heart 
plucked out and carried on the point of a bayonet by the 
hangman." He died, however, resolutely denj-iug the truth of 
the " Rye House " plot. The only part of the mansion which 
now remains is an embattled gate house, built of brick and 
ornamented with a handsome stone Gothic doorway. The 
moat is quite filled up. The few chimneys left standing are 
very curiously constructed, and at one of the angles is a 
turret, to which an ancient winding staircase leads up from 
the interior. Until lately it was a workhouse for the poor of 
Stanstead Abbots, in which parish it is situated. 

Burnt Mill, Harlow, and Sawbridgeworth furnish agreeable 
pastoral scenery to the pedestrian, but the country round is of 
too flat and level a character to exhibit such prospects as we 
are continually encountering on the roads through Surrey 
and Kent. The railway passenger who can proceed onward 
to Cambridge and see the Colleges will not, however, regret 
his prolongation of the tour, though a description of this 
famous university town, so charmingly situated on the banks 
of the "classic Cam," is manifestly beyond our restricted 
limits. 



EXCURSION II. 

BY RAILWAY TO CHELMSFORD (COLCHESTER 
BRAXCH)— STRATFORD -WEST HAM— ILFORD STATION— WAN- 
STEAD— WANSTE AD HOUSE— BARKING— CHADWELL STREET 

WARD — ROMFORD — HAVERING-ATTE-BOWER CURIOUS 

LEGEND — BRENTWOOD — INGRAVE — THORNDON HALL — 
INGATESTONE — BLTTSBLT?Y XSD STOCK — CHELMSFORD— 
GREAT WALTHAM—DUNMOW— FLITCH OF BACON— RETURN 
BY BISHOP'S STORTFORD TO TOWN. 

A railway excursion to Chelmsford is hardly so prolific in 
interesting localities as some we have described, but as many 
who have exhausted other routes may like to try the " fresh 
fields and pastures new" presented by this, we shall briefiy 
glance at the notabilities that lie within the compass of the 
line. The Colchester and Ipswich branch of the " Eastern 
Counties " diverges to the north-east just below Stratford, and 
the first place to which the attention of the passenger may be 
called is West Ham, where a brick gateway and a small arch 
form the remains of the ancient abbey that once stood within 
the parish. The church is large but destitute of architectural 
beauty. Nearly two mUes from the Ilford station is Wanstead, 
where once stood the magnificent mansion of Wanstead 
House, demolished in a most thoughtless and barbarous 
manner by Viscount Wellesley, who married the wealthy 
heiress of the Longs' and Tilneys'. The mansion was built, 
in 1715, by Sir Richard Child, and the park was honored at 
various times by festivities in celebration of the visits of Queen 
Elizabeth and James I, Here also resided the Bourbon 
Princes in their exile. The " Infant Orphan Asylum," at 
Snaresbrook, was opened in June, 1843, for 500 orphans, and 
is a handsome structure, well adapted for the benevolent 



134 HAVEBIKG. 

object to which it is devoted. The old town of Barkinglies to the 
south of the station about the same distance, and occupies an 
advantageous position on the east side of the river Eoding. 
Numerous fishing vessels for the supply of Billingsgate keep 
up a lively traffic in the place. At Chadwell Street Ward, 
intersected by the line, there was, in 1659, an odd memorial 
erected to the late Protector, Oliver Cromwell, in the form of 
a whalebone arch, taken from a whale caught in Barking 
Reach. Eastbury House, one mile from Barking, is an ancient 
mansion, reported to have been a meeting-house for the 
conspirators whilst engaged in arranging the details of the 
Gunpowder Plot 

Rmnford, six miles from Hford, is an important and some- 
what venerable town, having a famous com and cattle market, 
held every "Wednesday, according to a charter granted in 
1247. There are several elegant seats in the neighbourhood, 
bat no public buildings requiring mention. A stroll of three 
miles north of the station to Havering-atte-Bower— the very 
name of which carries a pleasant intimation of its Saxon 
origin and woody environs — will be found worthy the pains 
of the pedestrian. One of our old monarchs, Edward the 
Confessor, had a palace here, and an old legend, in attributing 
to him the present appellation of the parish, gives the follow- 
ing explanation of an inscription recorded on his shrine in 
Westminster Abbey. From this it would seem that in that 
vague and uncertain period known to chroniclers of fairy 
tales as " once-upon-a-time," an aged pilgrim met the 
monarch, as he was leaving his palace, and solicited alms. 
The king, having no money about liim, promised to remember 
him next time, but the pilgrim would not be refused, arid, 
after some further importunities, he presented the mendicant 
with a ring, in default of the more convertible coin he had 
been requested to bestow. Some years after this same pilgrim 
was met in Judea by a party of English palmers traversing 
the same land, in the hope of thereby winning a pardon for 
some offences committed in their native cotmtry. They 



BBENTWOOD. 185 

recognised the pilgi-im, as Ophelia would have done, "by bis 
cockle hat and staff, and by his sandal shoon," and he gave 
unto them a ring, with instructions to bear it unto Edward the 
Confessor, and announce to him that six months after he 
should die. The prediction was, of course, verified, and firom 
that time the village of Clavering became by a punning verbal 
transition " Have-a-ring." Being what is called " a liberty," 
confirmed by Edward I. and other monarchs, the county 
magistrates have no jurisdiction within its limits, and the 
tenants claim exemption from toll throughout the kingdom. 
It is a pleasant village on the borders of Hainault Forest, 
which, with Epping Forest, is reputed to comprise upwards of 
80,000 acres, many of which have latterly been placed under 
cultivation. 

Brentwood, a corruption of Burnt "Wood, the forest in which 
it stood being consumed centuries ago by fire, is a thriving 
town, much increased in importance since it has been a rail- 
way station. The surrounding country assumes a more undu- 
lating character, and the neighbourhood, especially towards 
Billericay, becomes even picturesque. In the High Street will 
be seen the old prison and Assize Hall, ^vhich has recently 
undergone extensive repairs. The ancient chapel was dedi- 
cated to Saint Thomas a Becket, in 1227. Notwithstanding 
modern innovations, several buildings still remaining have an 
antiquity of four centuries. Lord Petre, who resides at 
Thomdon Hall, close by, has erected here a new Eoman 
Catholic Chapel, which is, unquestionably, a fine ornament to 
the place. This nobleman's seat is at Ingrave, about two miles 
to the south, and has around it a fine park, with a noble 
avenue of trees leading to the principal entrance. In the time 
of Henry VII. it belonged to the Fitz-Lewis family, the last 
representative of which was here burned to death, with his 
bride, on their wedding night. 

Ingatestone, five miles further, has no feature except the old 
Hall, and its fishponds, to distinguish it from an ordinary 
market town. This mansion, which is irregularly built, was 



136 CHELMSPOED. 

formerly the seat of the Petres, to whom are some interesting 
monuments in the old church. About three miles to the south 
are two little parishes called Buttsbury and Stock, fonning 
one village between them. Buttsbury Church is quite a 
curiosity in its way, measuring only three feet by twenty, and 
having a square tower of flint and stone, that makes the 
whole edifice look in the distance like a Lowther Arcade toy. 
The bricks made about here, called " Stock bricks," are 
famous all through the country. 

Chelmsford, 29 miles from London, was an old Roman 
station on the river Chelmer, to which it owes its name, and 
has a neat and bustling appearance, as the capital of the 
county. The County Hall, built of Portland stone, with four 
handsome Ionic columns, has a majestic aspect from the 
High Street, and here the sessions and assizes are held. A 
Museum, Mechanics' Institution, Assembly Rooms, and a 
handsome church, are all ornaments to the town. 

An agreeable circuit can be made from Chelmsford through 
Great Waltham to Dunmow, a distance of about six miles. 
Great Dunmow is just the quiet old-fashioned town that a 
recollection of the ancient custom held within its limits would 
prepare us to expect. The hill on which it stands overlooks 
the river Chelmer and the finest tract of meadow land in the 
county. The celebrated Flitch of Bacon was a custom which 
originated in the reign of Henry ILL with Robert Fitzwalter, 
who, with the monks of Dunmow Priory, made a grant that 
" he who repenteth not of his marriage, sleeping or waking, 
might lawfully fetch a flitch of bacon." The last application 
for the flitch was made in 1751, since which time the Caudle 
Lectures have probably interfered with a repetition of the 
claim. In 1837 it was revived, with some variation of the 
original tenure, and now the bacon is annually presented " to 
the married couple — labourer in husbandry and his wife — 
who shall have brought up the greatest part of their children, 
and placed them in respectable service, without any or the 
least parochial relief." 



bishop's stoetfoed. 137 

It is eight miles from Dumnow to the Bishop's Stortford 
Station, on the Cambridge line, and thus the excursionist can 
pleasantly vary his return route to town. 

Before parting company with the reader, we would fain 
once more impress upon him the advantages of reducing the 
hints for excursions given in the foregoing pages to the 
pleasant proofs of practical experience. We firmly believe 
that nothing can give a more vigorous spur to the flagged 
and jaded intellect — nothing can administer a more genuine 
and invigorative impulse to our thoughts and fancies, than 
the occasional flight from the busy scenes of commerce to the 
green recesses of our surrounding woodlands, where we may 
exchange the dizzy hum of traflic for peaceful meditation in 
those sylvan sohtudes that are to be found amid the haunts of 
nature. Quick trains and cheap fares have done wonders in 
bringing the hearts of luckless Londoners into communion 
with the charms of the country, and what we have endeavoured 
to show is, that if the long purses and long jotirneys commen- 
surate therewith are not ANathin the power of the milUon to 
attain, we have yet a hundred delightftd resorts within the 
compass of a few shillings and a few hours. If we cannot 
accomplish a trip to the Continent, we can manage a jaunt to 
Leith Hill; if we fail to reach the lakes, or find the Highlands 
beyond our reach, we can yet agreeably content ourselves 
with an afternoon in Richmond Park or a day in Windsor 
Forest. 



INDEX AND TABLE OF DISTANCES 

FOB THE 

EXCUESIONIST EOUND LONDON. 



5j 
I 



32 

5| 
13 
25 
13 

8 

5* 

3 

8 
12 
26 
23 
29 

5i 

21 

7 
17} 

4 
31 

4J 
1(5 
21 
22 
10 
24 

7 
30 
13 
29 
21 
22 
16 
31 
10* 

91 
101 

5 
26 

4 

2 



Names of Places. 



Abbot's Langley, HerU . . 

Acton, MidSesex 

Addington, Surrey , 

Am well, Herts 

Banstead, Surrey 

Barking, Essex 

Barnes, Surrey 

Battersea, Surrey 

Beckenham, Kent 

Beddington, Surrey 

Berkhampstead, Herts . . 

Billericay, Essex 

Bishop's Stortford, Herts 

Blacklieath, Kent 

Ho-^, Middlesex 

Brentford, ifidcCetex 

Brentwood, £M&r 

Brixton, Surrey 

Brompton, Kent 

Brook Green, Middlesex. . 

Broxbonme, Herts 

Buttsbury, Essex 

By&eet, Surrey 

Carshalton, Surrey 

Chalk, Kent 

Charlton, Kent 

Chatham, Kent 

Cheam, Surrey 

Chelmsford, Essex 

Chertsey, Surrey 

Chevening, Kent 

Cheshunt, Herts 

Chiddingstone, Kent .... 

Chigwell, Essex 

Chingford, Essex 

Chislehnrst. Kent 

Chismck, Middlesex .... 

Cobham, Surrey 

Clapham, Surrey 

Clapton, Middlesex 



Nearest Railway Station, & 
distance therefrom. 



mUes. 

Watfbrd 5 

Ealing 1 

Croydon 3| 

Hertford 3 1 

Epsom 3 i 

Ilford 2 

Barnes | 

Clapham Common .. H 

Sydenham 2 | 

Carshalton 1 j 

Berkliampstead .... [ 

Brentwood 5i 

Bishop's Stortford . . j 

Greenwich l*, 

Stratford | 

Ealing 24 

Brentwood 

Omnibus Route .... 

See Chatham 

Omnibus Route .... 

Broxbonme ' 

Ingatestone 3 

Weybridge 2 

Carshalton 

Gravesend 2i 

Greenwich It 

Rochester 1 

Cheam 

Chelmsford 

Chertsey 

Tonbridge 10 

Cheshunt 

Edenbridge 4 

Ponder's End 4 

Ponder'sEnd 2 

Sydenham 7 

Omnibus or Steamboat 

Woking 21 

Clapham Common . . 2 
Omnibus Route ' 



139 



Names of Places. 



Nearest Railway Station, & 
distance therefrom. 



miles. 

Gravesend 5 

Croydon 

Romford 3 

Greenwich 9 

Deptford 

Reigate 7i 

Forest HUl 2 

Bishop's Stortford . . 8 

Ealing 1 

Mortlake 1 

Romford 13 

Edenbridge 1 

Edmonton 1 

Chertsey 4 

Greenwich 3 

Ponder's End 2 

Broxbourne 7 

Epsom 

Route by Steamboat 
Claremont and Esher 1 

Ewell 

Sydenham 8 

Famborough 6 

Coach Route 

Mile End 

Omnibus Route .... 

Guildford 4 

Steamboat Route . . . 

Hanwell 2 

Steamboat Route .... 

Greenwich 

Guildford 

Lea Bridge 1 

Omnibus Route .... 
Omnibus Route .... 

Hampton 

Hanwell 

Harrow 

Hertford 7 

Romford 3 

Hemel Hempstead . . 2 

Hertford 

Edenbridge 2 

Waltham Abbey ... 
Omnibus Route • .. 

Broxbourne 2i 

Omnibus Route 

Southall 3 

Ingatestone 

Ingrave, Essex Brentwood 2i 

Isleworth, Middlesex IKichmond 2 

Islington, MidUlesej; I Omnibus Route 



26 Cobham, Kent 

10 Croydon, Surrey 

15 Dagenham, ^Asar 

15 Daitford, iien* 

4 Deptford, A'en* 

24 Dorking, Surrey 

4 Dulwich, Surrey 

35 Dunmow, Essex 

7 Ealing, Middlesex 

6i East Sheen, Surrey 

26 East Tilburj', Essex 

32 Edenbridge, Kent 

7 Edmonton, Middlesex 

18 Eghaxa, Surrey 

8 Eltham, ^«/i< 

9 Enfield, Middlesex 

17 Epping, Essex 

15 Epsom, Surrey 

14 Evith, Kent 

15 Esher, Surrey 

14 Ewell, Surrey 

15 Famborough, Kent 

39 Famham, Surrey , 

6 Finchley, Middlesex , 

3 Ford (Old) Middlesex 

4 Fulham, Middlesex , 

33 Godalming, Surrey 

22 Gravesend, Kent 

8 Greenford, MidiUesex , 

19 Greenhithe, Kent 

5 Greenwich, Kent 

30 Guildford, Surrey 

6 Ham, Essex 

3i Hammersmith, Middlesex . 

4 Hampstead, Middlesex . . . 

12 Hampton Court, Middlesex 

7i Hanwell, Middlesex 

9i Harrow, Middlesex 

20 llntaeld, Berts 

15 Havering, Kssex 

23i Hemel Hempstead, Herts . 

81 Hertford, Berts 

84 Hever, Kent 

12 High Beach, Essex 

S| Highgate, Middlesex 

n Hoddesdon, Berts 

2 HoUoway, Middlesex 

10 Hounslow, Middlesex 

23 Ingatestone, Essex 

SO 



140 



■fci 



Names of Places. 



Nearest Railway Station, & 
distance therefrom. 



12 Kingston, Surrey 
25 Knoclihoit, Kent 
5i Laytonstone, Essex 
19 Leatherhead, Surrey 

6 Lee, Kent 
29 Leitli HUl, Surrey 

64 Lewisham, Kent 

14 Long Ditton, Surrey 

19 Merstham, Surrey ....... 

7 Merton, Carrey 

23 Jimton, Kent 

24 Minis, Herts 

6i Mortlake, Surrey 

20 Nortlifleet, A'e«< 

6 Norwood Surrey 

3 Nunhead, Surrey 

21 Ongax, Essex 

3 Peckliam, Surrey 

37 Penaliurst, Kent 

10 Petersham, Surrey 

1 2 J Pinner, Middlesex 

16 Pm-fleet, Essex 

44 Putney, Surrey 

21 Reigate, Surrey 

10 Richmond, Surrey 

18 Rickmansworth, ^erts ... 

23 Rivevhead, Kent 

29 Rochester, A>n< 

12 Romford, ii.sftr 

21 Saint Alban's, //ert« 

23 Seven Oaks, Kent 

8 Shooter's Hill, Kent 

17 Staines, J/i<Mfesea; 

22 Stock, Essex 

3 Stock well, Surrey 

4 Stratford, Essex 

7 Streatliam, Surrey 

7 Sydenham, Kent 

7 Tooting, Surrey , 

71 Tottenham, Middlesex 

1 Twickenham, Middlesex — 

15 Uxbridge, Middlesex 

12 Waltliam Abbey, Essex .... 
12 Waltham Cross, Herts . — 

6 Wandsworth, -Surr€y , 

19 Weybridge, Surrey 

224 Windsor, Berks 

6 Wim Weduu, Surrey 

a4 Woking, Surrey 

8 Woodford, Essex 

16 Woodmansteme, Surrey . . 

9 Woolwicli« A'ent 



miles. 

Kingston 

Coach Route 

Lea Bridge 1 

Epsom 4 

Greenwich 2 

Reigate 10 

Greenwich 1 

Esher 1 

Merstham 

Wimbledon 1 

Gravesend 1 

Hertford 7 

Mortlake 

Gravesend 2 

Sydenliam 4 

Omnibus Route 

Brentwood 8 

Omnibus Route 

Penshurst 2 

Richmond 1 

Pinner 

Romford 9 

Putney 

Reigate 14 

Richmond 

Watford 3 

Penshurst 74 

Gravesend 8 

Romford 

Watford 7 

Penshurst 6 

Greenwich 3 

Staines 

Ingatestone 3 

Omnibus Route 

Stratford 

Omnibus Route 

Sydenliam 

Omnibus Ronte 

Tottenham 

Richmond It 

West Draj'ton 3 

Edmonton 1 

Waltham 

Wandsworth 

Weybridge 

Slough 24 

Wimbledon 

Woking 1 

Lea Bridge 4 

Croydon 5 

Greenwich 3 



11,000 

1.470 
636 

1,285 
704 
4,684 
1,004 
7,7GO 
5,026 
1,563 

41,422 
5,317 

10,430 
5,061 

2,487 
605 

25,000 
6,994 
2,yi5 
2,840 
8,584 
5,208 
3,219 
4,177 



rjr^^-jrS. 



CHARGES AT INNS. 

The charges at inns are very uncertain, and are by no means 
proportioned to the excellence of the accommodation. It may 
be as well to give the traveller a scale of the usual charges made 
at some of the best inns in the country, and he should not on any 
account pay more, unless he has had unusual accommodation: 

s. d. s. d. 
Breakfast - - - - 16 to 19 

Dinner ------ 2 

Half-a-pintof Wine - - - - 1 3 

Tea 16 

Bed 16 

7s.Qd,oxSs 

Fee to the waiter, 3^. for each meal; chambermaid, 6d.; 

"boots," for cleaning boots and shoes, 2d. If more charges are 

made than the above, the traveller should deduct the overcharge, 

and then put down the fees he gives to the servants, thus : 

Breakfast ----- 2 

Dinner - - - - - -30 

Tea 20 

Fire, bed, and lights - - - - 3 *. rf. 

Wine ------ 1 6 — -11 6 

Such charges as these have been often attempted at some of the 
worst inns near London. 

Underneath this bill the traveller should write — 

Overcharge Dinner - - - - 1 

„ Breakfast - - - 3 

„ Tea - - - - 6 

„ Wine - - - - 3 



Bed, etc. 



Then write — 

Waiter - 
Chambermaid 
Boots - 



1 


6~ 


— 3 




8 6 





6 







6 







o 


1 *» 









Total - - - 9 8 



DAY'S EXCURSIONS AROUND THE METROPOLIS. 

The following hints make no pretence of exhausting all the inte- 
resting features of scenery or antiquities near London, which 
is surrounded by beauties little dreamt of by those who do not 
take the trouble of becoming acquainted with them. I'robably 
many things are passed by, equally worthy of a visit, still those 
which are noted, will, I am certain, in nowise disappoint any 
one: — 



36 HAND-BOOK FOR HOLIDAYS. 

Eastward. — To Greenwich, by river steamer or railway — see the 
College, built by Sir C. Wren — walk through the Park — over 
Blackheath — through Lee to Eltham — see the ruins of the old 
Palace, now a barn — thence by Shooter's Hill to Woolwich, a 
walk of about ten miles — return by river steamer. 

Greenwich. — 1. Those who want a couple of hours' fresh air 
cannot do better than go to Greenwich, and stroll about the 
hillocks and dales of the Park. 

2. With an hour's more time the circuit of Blackheath 
may be taken. 

3. Go across the Park and out at the West Gate, and then 
up the lane opposite the gate, and through pleasant footpaths 
to the pretty village of Charlton, and return the same way, or 
by the Blackheath Road, and through the Park by the Black- 
heath Gate. 

4. Go to Charlton as in No. 3, and keep on to Woolwich 
Common — go up to Shooter's Hill, and return to Greenwich 
by the Blackheath Road. 

5. Go to Charlton as at No. 3, cross to Woolwich Lower 
Road, and if possible see the Charlton Sand-pits, in which 
many strata are seen at once, and proceed by the low road 
either to the steamer at Woolwich, or back by the low road to 
Greenwich. 

To Woolwich by steamer — then cross the Common and go 
over Shooter's Hill towards Gravesend — then take the second 
or third turning to the left and get back to Woolwich. 

From Gravesend steamer — ^land at Erith, the country being 
pretty behind the village and church — return by steamer, or 
walk through Plumstead to Woolwich. 

From Gravesend steamer — land at Pai^eet, and see the 
chalk-pits and public gardens, etc. 

From Gravesend b)' steamer — go up Windmill Hill, and to 
the Rosherville Gardens. 

To Gravesend by steamer — walk or ride to Rochester, seven 
miles — see Castle, which was built by Bishop Gundulph, in 
William Rufus' reign : the tower is a very fine ancient military 
ruin — Cathedral, whose western front is one of the most inte- 
resting remains of Romanesque or Anglo-Norman Architec- 
ture in our country; the crypt here is very remarkable for its 
extent — back to Gravesend. 

To Gravesend — ride to Rochester and walk to Maidstone — 



day's excursions around the metropolis. 37 

see the Old Cromlech, Kit's Cotty House, which is midway 
between Maidstone and Rochester, and back, about IG miles. 

To Gravesend — walk to Cobham, about five miles — see 
Cobham Hall, an extensive but not very decorated Elizabethan 
house, with many pictures; it is open on Fridays only. Eleven 
till Four, by tickets purchaseable at Caddell's Library, Graves- 
end, 2*. each — see Cobham church, with its tine old architec- 
tonic tombs, and return the same way. 

South-Eastward. — A visit in the summer to Sevenoaks and its 
neighbourhood has many attractions. Situate between two 
ridges of the chalk hills, and abundantly decorated with fine 
trees, the scenery is extremely beautiful and luxuriant on all 
sides. Knowle Park is celebrated for its beech trees ; and the 
house is one of the most interesting and earliest existing speci- 
mens of Domestic architecture. Many of the rooms remain 
nearl}' in their original state; and the collection of paintings, 
chiefly historical portraits, is very extensive. The grounds 
are open to all; and the house is liberally shewn at all times, 
even on Sundays. There is so much to be seen and enjoyed 
at Sevenoaks, that it will be best to get there in the quickest 
way possible, which is by carriage of some kind. 

To Sydenham, by Croydon Railway — walk to Bromley, over 
Hayes Common, across to Chislehurst, and back through 
Bromley to Sydenham, a delightful walk of about 15 miles, 
especially towards the latter end of the spring. 

To Croydon by Railway, over Croomhurst Hill, which 
abounds with lilies of the valley — to West Wickham and Ad- 
dington — to Keston, over Hayes Common — see the Roman 
Encampment — to Bromley — to Sydenham, a walk of about 
15 miles, and return by Railway. 

South. — To Red Hill, by Brighton Railway — walk through Rei- 
gate to Dorking, over Box Hill, in June, when almost the 
whole tribe of orchideae may be found in blossom there — 
through Mickleham, Leatherhead, to Ditton Railway Station, 
about 20 miles, return to Town by South Western Railway. 

Ride to Croydon by Brighton Railway — walk through Car- 
shalton, over Banstead Downs, by Walton-on-the-Hill to 
Gatton — back from Merstham by Croydon Railway, about 16 

miles. 

Ride to Sydenham by Croydon Railway — walk by the 
Beulah Spa, through Norwood, Tooting to Wimbledon, about 
nine miles — to Town by South Western Railway. 

d2 



38 HAND-BOOK FOR HOLIDAYS. 

South-West. — Ride to Pitton Marsh by South Western Railway 
— walk through Esher — see Wolsey's Well, and the Ruins of 
t!ie Water-Gate House of Wolsey's Palace on the Mole — 
to St. George's Hill, the highest of the Surrey Hills, near the 
Tiiames — to Weybridge Station — total distance, about seven 
miles — return by railway. Another walk: by Esher to Pain's 
Hill, nearCobhani — to the Ruins of Newark Abbey, near Pin- 
ford — by banks of Basingstoke Canal to Weybridge Station — 
about 15 miles. 

Ride to Woking by South Western Railway, and by coach 
to Guildford — walk on the ridge of hills to Dorking and to 
Reigate, with magnificent prospects over miles of cultivation 
at every step — total distance about 20 miles — return from Red 
Hill station on Brighton Railway. 

Ride to Ditton Marsh, walk to Ditton Ferry, and cross the 
River, pursue the Towing-path up the Thames (crossing 
Hampton Bridge), to Weybridge : or instead, walk by the 
picturesque banks of the Mole, to Moulsey, and follow the 
Towing-path to Weybridge. Pass by the Railway Station, and 
over St. George's Hill into the Walton Road. Return by 
South Western Railway from Walton Station. The Marshy 
ground on the east side of Walton Bridge, is called " Cowey 
Stakes." Here tradition relates that Julius Caesar crossed the 
Thames. Here the eye which is keen after the picturesque, 
will find much that is gratifying in several views of the three 
bridges; and Mr. Barry's elegant campanile to Lord Tanker- 
ville's Villa, will not be unnoticed. If the present Lessee of 
Oatland Park (Lord F. Egerton), had not forbidden its use as 
a thoroughfare, the walk might be varied, through the varieties 
of its fine foliage. 

Let those who do not grudge the expense take the earliest 
Train to Southampton, and pass the day among the Ruins of 
Netley Abbey, begun about 1239; beautiful remnants of the 
lancet-arch, roofless, except with canopies formed by very 
tall overhanging ash trees, which grow among the ruins. 
Another day may be well spent in Winchester ; several hours 
being devoted to its Cathedral. Dalloway briefly instances its 
peculiarities as follows: " Wykeham's" nave (A.D. 1394) is 
considered as one of the finest in England, and longer than 
that of York. The exterior of the Choir and Lady's Chapel is 
of most beautiful workmanship of the fifteenth century. There 
are four very fine Sacella, or Sepulchral Chapels, for the 
Bishops Wykeham, Waynflete, Beaufort, and Fox. Wykeham 



day's excursions around the metropolis. 39 

is said to have surrounded the piers erected by Wakelyn with 
Pilasters. The Choir is under the Tower, as at Gloucester. 
The exquisite Screen behind the altar was the work of Bishop 
Fox, to whom Speed attributes not only the additions to the 
Choir, but the vaulting and glassing (with stained glass) of 
the whole Church. 

A still more extensive Tour along the Undercliff of the 
Isle of Wight, or even round the Island in a Steamer, or a 
Geological Excursion to Allum Bay and the Needles, is by no 
means impracticable in a long summer's day. 

Ride to Weybridge b}' South Western Railway — walk 
through Chertsey, Staines, and Windsor on to Slough Station, 
about 1 6 miles, return by Great Western Railway. 

West. — By River Steamer, when the tide is favourable, to Kew — 
see the Gardens there — walk by the side of the Thames to 
Richmond Hill, through Richmond Park, over Wimbledon 
Common to Wimbledon Station, about eight miles — return by 
South Western Railway. 

By South Western Railway to Kingston Station — cross 
Ditton Ferry — see the Gardens and Grounds of Hampton 
Court, through Bushy Park, especially when the horse chest- 
nuts are in blossom — through the pretty country town of 
Kingston, across Richmond Park to Richmond, about ten 
miles — return by Richmond Steamer. 

By Great Western Railway to Slough — walk to Windsor, 
remarking the views about Eton — by Frogmore Lodge, along 
the Long Walk to Virginia Water, and back to Windsor, 
about fourteen miles — ride in Omnibus to Slough Station, 
fare 6d., and return by Railway. 

By Great Western Railway to Maidenhead Station — walk 
to Henley, and return by the Tow-path of the Thames, or 
descend the river in a boat or barge. Some of the finest 
scenery of the Tlmmes lies between Henley and Maidenhead. 

By Great Western Railway to Reading — walk by the 
banks of the River to Maidenhead, and return by Railway. 

(Two Days' Excursion). Proceed as far as Reading bj- the 
Great Western Railway — walk seven miles to Oakingham, 
where are two comfortable Inns (one kept by Mrs. Wise), 
thence by Eversley to Hartley Row for the night. The Lion 
is the " head " Inn, but the Swan will do for him who has 
little pride and few sixpences. Take the road opposite the 



40 HAND-BOOK FOR IIOLTDATS. 

Swan to the church, through Crondall and Farnham, or go 
direct to the Farnboro' Station, which is six miles on the 
London side of Farnham ; if strength and zeal hold out, walk 
still on to Woking Common, and take the Southampton Train 
to London. We would rather recommend the Inn at Frimley, 
a mile from the Farnboro' Station, if there be time; it is beau- 
tifully situated, and half a day may be whiled away in the 
Park and Heath which surround it. 

North West. — By Birmingham Railway to Harrow — ascend 
the hill — see the church and the fine panoramic views. It is 
worth while in the walk back to town, seeing the Kensal Green 
Cemetery. The first road on the north-east side of the Ceme- 
tery leads across the meadows over the Hippodrome, into the 
Bayswater road, and is by far the pleasantest way into town. 

By Birmingham Railway to Heme! Hempstead — walk 
through Gorhambury Park to St Albans — see the Abbey, 
the nave of which is one of the few authentic specimens of 
Saxon architecture. It is among the largest of our Abbeys. 
Thence to W^atford, and if there is time, see Cashioburj' and 
its old picturesque mansion, about sixteen miles — return by 
Railway. 

Ride to Tring, by Birmingham Railway. — Walk to Wen- 
dover, and if you desire good and reasonable entertainment, 
pay Mrs. Rose a visit at the Crown Inn. Best to order a 
dinner there, and whilst it is preparing walk to "Chequers," 
once inhabited by Oliv er Cromwell. Examine the magnificent 
box trees in its neighbourhood, and a spot called " Velvet 
Lawn ;" return to Wendover, and from Tring by Railway. If 
a second day's absence from town is possible, pursue the course 
of the Chiltern Hills to High Wycombe, thence to Marlow, 
and by the Thames to Maidenhead. 

North. — By Northern and Eastern Railway to Waltham Abbey 
— see the Abbey. One of the most perfect remains of Saotoii 
Ci->>,> a \\ architecture near the Metropolis. Walk across Epping 
Forest, through Loughton and Cliigwell, and across Hainhault 
Forest to Romford, about thirteen miles — return by Eastern 
Counties Railway. 

Ride to Hatfield and back. The three Parks and Mansions 
with their contents — of Brockett Hall, Penshanger Park, and 
Hatfield Park, are most pleasant subjects for a day's excursion. 

From West End of the Town, go by Regent's Park, Prim- 
rose Hill, and footpath to Hampstead; go about the Heath on 



day's excursions around the metropolis. 41 

both sides of the road ; go thence by road to Highgate, or by 
footpath through Vale of Health, and by Caen Wood to back 
road to Highgate; or the same way, turning at the ponds, up 
a by-road, through the grounds of Caen Wood, leading into 
the road between Hampstead and Highgate. 

Highgate to Hornsey and Muswell Hill, or to Muswell 
Hill and Colney Hatch, and back, or cross to Finchley. 

Hampstead to Hendon, and return by Edgeware Road, or 
cross on through Neardon and Willesden. 

The interest of a walk is very much enhanced by some know- 
ledge of the natural history of the country explored. A list of 
the more rare plants which grow around the Metropolis, would be 
too long for the present work ; and the reader, if he is not already 
acquainted with them, had best consult Turner and Dillwyn's 
Botanist's Guide, where the plants peculiar to each county of 
England and Wales are classified under their respective counties. 
The neighbourhoods of Boxhill near Dorking, and of Walton-on- 
Thames, may both be instanced as spots rich in Botanical rarities. 
The objection of length does not, however, apply to a general 
survey of the geological features of the metropolitan neighbour- 
hoods ; and the following contribution of a well-wisher to this 
little book is therefore inserted. It will be useful too as a Botani- 
cal Guide, inasmuch as each soil has its own especial plants. 

GEOLOGY OF LONDON. 

The soil on which London is built, and that of the country 
around, to a great distance in all quarters, consists of various 
strata of clays, sands, and gravel reposing on a chalk bed or basin. 
The brim of this basin has been carried away on the sea-side, but 
on the land-sides it remains, forming the elevated ridges of chalk 
hills which terminate at Dover on the south-east, and Hunstanton 
in Norfolk on the north-east. The clay beds extend along the 
sides of the Thames forming the elevations of Highgate, the sub- 
strata of Hampstead, Hendon, Harrow, and mixed up with gravel, 
extend through Uxbiidge, Beaconsfield. to the chalk at High 
Wycombe. Clay with deposits of gravel and a little sand form 
the chief soil of all the south-east and north-east of Essex. The 
hills on the Surrey side of London are of clay, as at New Cross, 
Nun-Head Hill, Heme Hill, Brixton, and on to Wandsworth, 
where they terminate by an inconsiderable elevation above the 
alluvial meadows of Battersea on the shores of the Thames. This 
clay is covered in various places by immediate deposits of sand of 
various kinds, forming the beautiful elevation of Hampstead Heath, 
and those invaluable waste lands (invaluable for the purposes of 



42 



HAND-BOOK FOR HOLIDAYS. 



health and out-of-door enjoyment, because waste and sterile) of 
Clapham Common, Wandsworth, Wimbledon. Extending beyond 
the valley of the Wandle, Kingston, and the valley of the Mole, 
they appear again at Esher, forming that immense tract of sandy 
heath which reaches to Ripley, Woking, and Bagshot Heath, and 
present the picturesque heights of St. George's Hill and St. Ann's 
Hill. They reach to Hartley Row. where appears a little clay, and 
as far as the chalk at Odiham and Basingstoke. They pass north- 
ward to Bracknel, and near to Oakingham, where are found the 
gravels and clays of the valley of the Loddon and the Thames, and 
of Windsor Forest. The sand, gravel, and clay, alternating with 
one another, form the little frequented but delicious sylvan scenery 
of Eversley, Hartley Row, and Crondall. 



upp EH Marine 
Harrow .•' Botley Hill 




A rude but not altogether inappropriate idea may be formed of 
the London basin as it is called, by considering the chalk hills 
which extend from Norfolk to Dover, as forming the edge of a 
fire shovel, the hollow of which has been scooped out by torrents 
of water (the deluge of the ancient world), and its contents borne 
away into the sea. An immense hollow area has been left, which 
has been partially filled up (by the operation of successive torrents 
and floods of water) with sand, gravel, and clay — washed, drifted, 
and accumulated in all sorts of tortuous forms, according to the force 
and direction of the various currents which have flowed over it. 
The Thames may be considered as the great residuary drain, when 
all had become quiet and had formed its last level. By a glance at 
the map, the chalk liills which form the edge or brim of this 
vast hollow, may be traced from Dover running westernly by 
Canterbury, Rochester, Wrotham, Godstone, Reigate, Guildford, 
Basingstoke, Hungerford, through Berkshire and Buckingham- 
shire, approaching London at St. Albans, Hertford, Ware, Bishop's 
Stortford, all the north-western part of Essex, as at Saffron-Walden, 
the western side of Sufiblk, as at Bury St. Edmunds, and termi- 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY 

Los Angeles 

This book is DUE on the last 

date stamped below. 

(liM 619Z5 
NOV 14 AST* 



10m-7,'71 (P6348S8)— Z-63 



UC SOUTHERN nEGKMAL UBRARY FAQLITY 



A 000 106 612 5